Aaron C. Brault

TitleAdj Assoc Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California Davis
CO 80521
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    West Nile Virus Genotypic Affect on Host Competence
    CDC/NCPDCID R01CI000235Sep 30, 2004 - Sep 29, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    West Nile Viral Determinants of Avian Pathogenesis
    NIH/NIAID R01AI061822Jul 1, 2004 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Romo H, Kenney JL, Blitvich BJ, Brault AC. Restriction of Zika virus infection and transmission in Aedes aegypti mediated by an insect-specific flavivirus. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Nov 15; 7(1):181. PMID: 30429457.
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    2. Blitvich BJ, Brault AC. Chikungunya and Zika Viruses: Global Emerging Health Threats. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Oct; 99(4):1105-1106. PMID: 30292248.
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    3. Brault AC, Savage HM, Duggal NK, Eisen RJ, Staples JE. Heartland Virus Epidemiology, Vector Association, and Disease Potential. Viruses. 2018 09 14; 10(9). PMID: 30223439.
      View in: PubMed
    4. McDonald EM, Duggal NK, Ritter JM, Brault AC. Infection of epididymal epithelial cells and leukocytes drives seminal shedding of Zika virus in a mouse model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Aug 02; 12(8):e0006691. PMID: 30070988.
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    5. Kenney JL, Anishchenko M, Hermance M, Romo H, Chen CI, Thangamani S, Brault AC. Generation of a Lineage II Powassan Virus (Deer Tick Virus) cDNA Clone: Assessment of Flaviviral Genetic Determinants of Tick and Mosquito Vector Competence. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2018 07; 18(7):371-381. PMID: 29782238.
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    6. Blitvich BJ, Beaty BJ, Blair CD, Brault AC, Dobler G, Drebot MA, Haddow AD, Kramer LD, LaBeaud AD, Monath TP, Mossel EC, Plante K, Powers AM, Tesh RB, Turell MJ, Vasilakis N, Weaver SC. Bunyavirus Taxonomy: Limitations and Misconceptions Associated with the Current ICTV Criteria Used for Species Demarcation. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jul; 99(1):11-16. PMID: 29692303.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Mead PS, Duggal NK, Hook SA, Delorey M, Fischer M, Olzenak McGuire D, Becksted H, Max RJ, Anishchenko M, Schwartz AM, Tzeng WP, Nelson CA, McDonald EM, Brooks JT, Brault AC, Hinckley AF. Zika Virus Shedding in Semen of Symptomatic Infected Men. N Engl J Med. 2018 04 12; 378(15):1377-1385. PMID: 29641964.
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    8. Romo H, Papa A, Kading R, Clark R, Delorey M, Brault AC. Comparative Vector Competence of North American Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus for African and European Lineage 2 West Nile Viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jun; 98(6):1863-1869. PMID: 29637885.
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    9. Brault AC, Blitvich BJ. Continued Need for Comprehensive Genetic and Phenotypic Characterization of Viruses: Benefits of Complementing Sequence Analyses with Functional Determinations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 May; 98(5):1213. PMID: 29557334.
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    10. Duggal NK, McDonald EM, Ritter JM, Brault AC. Sexual transmission of Zika virus enhances in utero transmission in a mouse model. Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 14; 8(1):4510. PMID: 29540804.
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    11. Maharaj PD, Bosco-Lauth AM, Langevin SA, Anishchenko M, Bowen RA, Reisen WK, Brault AC. West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viral genetic determinants of avian host competence. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 02; 12(2):e0006302. PMID: 29447156.
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    12. Gregory CJ, Oduyebo T, Brault AC, Brooks JT, Chung KW, Hills S, Kuehnert MJ, Mead P, Meaney-Delman D, Rabe I, Staples E, Petersen LR. Modes of Transmission of Zika Virus. J Infect Dis. 2017 Dec 16; 216(suppl_10):S875-S883. PMID: 29267909.
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    13. Worwa G, Hutton AA, Frey M, Duggal NK, Brault AC, Reisen WK. Increases in the competitive fitness of West Nile virus isolates after introduction into California. Virology. 2018 01 15; 514:170-181. PMID: 29195094.
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    14. Brault AC, Domi A, McDonald EM, Talmi-Frank D, McCurley N, Basu R, Robinson HL, Hellerstein M, Duggal NK, Bowen RA, Guirakhoo F. A Zika Vaccine Targeting NS1 Protein Protects Immunocompetent Adult Mice in a Lethal Challenge Model. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 07; 7(1):14769. PMID: 29116169.
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    15. Roundy CM, Azar SR, Brault AC, Ebel GD, Failloux AB, Fernandez-Salas I, Kitron U, Kramer LD, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, Osorio JE, Paploski ID, Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Ribeiro GS, Ritchie SA, Tauro LB, Vasilakis N, Weaver SC. Lack of evidence for Zika virus transmission by Culex mosquitoes. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2017 10 18; 6(10):e90. PMID: 29044195.
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    16. McDonald EM, Duggal NK, Brault AC. Pathogenesis and sexual transmission of Spondweni and Zika viruses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Oct; 11(10):e0005990. PMID: 28985234.
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    17. Duggal NK, Ritter JM, McDonald EM, Romo H, Guirakhoo F, Davis BS, Chang GJ, Brault AC. Differential Neurovirulence of African and Asian Genotype Zika Virus Isolates in Outbred Immunocompetent Mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Nov; 97(5):1410-1417. PMID: 28820694.
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    18. Weger-Lucarelli J, Duggal NK, Brault AC, Geiss BJ, Ebel GD. Rescue and Characterization of Recombinant Virus from a New World Zika Virus Infectious Clone. J Vis Exp. 2017 06 07; (124). PMID: 28654045.
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    19. Chotiwan N, Brewster CD, Magalhaes T, Weger-Lucarelli J, Duggal NK, Rückert C, Nguyen C, Garcia Luna SM, Fauver JR, Andre B, Gray M, Black WC, Kading RC, Ebel GD, Kuan G, Balmaseda A, Jaenisch T, Marques ETA, Brault AC, Harris E, Foy BD, Quackenbush SL, Perera R, Rovnak J. Rapid and specific detection of Asian- and African-lineage Zika viruses. Sci Transl Med. 2017 05 03; 9(388). PMID: 28469032.
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    20. Kenney JL, Romo H, Duggal NK, Tzeng WP, Burkhalter KL, Brault AC, Savage HM. Transmission Incompetence of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pipiens from North America for Zika Virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 May; 96(5):1235-1240. PMID: 28500817.
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    21. Weger-Lucarelli J, Duggal NK, Bullard-Feibelman K, Veselinovic M, Romo H, Nguyen C, Rückert C, Brault AC, Bowen RA, Stenglein M, Geiss BJ, Ebel GD. Erratum for Weger-Lucarelli et al., "Development and Characterization of Recombinant Virus Generated from a New World Zika Virus Infectious Clone". J Virol. 2017 04 15; 91(8). PMID: 28356496.
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    22. Duggal NK, Ritter JM, Pestorius SE, Zaki SR, Davis BS, Chang GJ, Bowen RA, Brault AC. Frequent Zika Virus Sexual Transmission and Prolonged Viral RNA Shedding in an Immunodeficient Mouse Model. Cell Rep. 2017 02 14; 18(7):1751-1760. PMID: 28199846.
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    23. Weger-Lucarelli J, Duggal NK, Bullard-Feibelman K, Veselinovic M, Romo H, Nguyen C, Rückert C, Brault AC, Bowen RA, Stenglein M, Geiss BJ, Ebel GD. Development and Characterization of Recombinant Virus Generated from a New World Zika Virus Infectious Clone. J Virol. 2017 Jan 01; 91(1). PMID: 27795432.
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    24. Bosco-Lauth AM, Calvert AE, Root JJ, Gidlewski T, Bird BH, Bowen RA, Muehlenbachs A, Zaki SR, Brault AC. Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 12; 22(12):2070-2077. PMID: 27869591.
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    25. Brostoff T, Pesavento PA, Barker CM, Kenney JL, Dietrich EA, Duggal NK, Bosco-Lauth AM, Brault AC. MicroRNA reduction of neuronal West Nile virus replication attenuates and affords a protective immune response in mice. Vaccine. 2016 10 17; 34(44):5366-5375. PMID: 27637937.
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    26. Erickson BR, Sealy TK, Flietstra T, Morgan L, Kargbo B, Matt-Lebby VE, Gibbons A, Chakrabarti AK, Graziano J, Presser L, Flint M, Bird BH, Brown S, Klena JD, Blau DM, Brault AC, Belser JA, Salzer JS, Schuh AJ, Lo M, Zivcec M, Priestley RA, Pyle M, Goodman C, Bearden S, Amman BR, Basile A, Bergeron É, Bowen MD, Dodd KA, Freeman MM, McMullan LK, Paddock CD, Russell BJ, Sanchez AJ, Towner JS, Wang D, Zemtsova GE, Stoddard RA, Turnsek M, Guerrero LW, Emery SL, Stovall J, Kainulainen MH, Perniciaro JL, Mijatovic-Rustempasic S, Shakirova G, Winter J, Sexton C, Liu F, Slater K, Anderson R, Andersen L, Chiang CF, Tzeng WP, Crowe SJ, Maenner MJ, Spiropoulou CF, Nichol ST, Ströher U. Ebola Virus Disease Diagnostics, Sierra Leone: Analysis of Real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Values for Clinical Blood and Oral Swab Specimens. J Infect Dis. 2016 10 15; 214(suppl 3):S258-S262. PMID: 27587631.
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    27. Dietrich EA, Langevin SA, Huang CY, Maharaj PD, Delorey MJ, Bowen RA, Kinney RM, Brault AC. West Nile Virus Temperature Sensitivity and Avian Virulence Are Modulated by NS1-2B Polymorphisms. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 08; 10(8):e0004938. PMID: 27548738.
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    28. Prow NA, Edmonds JH, Williams DT, Setoh YX, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Suen WW, Hobson-Peters J, van den Hurk AF, Pyke AT, Hall-Mendelin S, Northill JA, Johansen CA, Warrilow D, Wang J, Kirkland PD, Doggett S, Andrade CC, Brault AC, Khromykh AA, Hall RA. Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960-2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 08; 22(8):1353-62. PMID: 27433830; PMCID: PMC4982165.
    29. Brault AC, Bowen RA. The Development of Small Animal Models for Zika Virus Vaccine Efficacy Testing and Pathological Assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jun 01; 94(6):1187-8. PMID: 27139439; PMCID: PMC4889731.
    30. Crowe SJ, Maenner MJ, Kuah S, Erickson BR, Coffee M, Knust B, Klena J, Foday J, Hertz D, Hermans V, Achar J, Caleo GM, Van Herp M, Albariño CG, Amman B, Basile AJ, Bearden S, Belser JA, Bergeron E, Blau D, Brault AC, Campbell S, Flint M, Gibbons A, Goodman C, McMullan L, Paddock C, Russell B, Salzer JS, Sanchez A, Sealy T, Wang D, Saffa G, Turay A, Nichol ST, Towner JS. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Feb; 22(2):217-23. PMID: 26812579; PMCID: PMC4734506.
    31. Goenaga S, Kenney JL, Duggal NK, Delorey M, Ebel GD, Zhang B, Levis SC, Enria DA, Brault AC. Potential for Co-Infection of a Mosquito-Specific Flavivirus, Nhumirim Virus, to Block West Nile Virus Transmission in Mosquitoes. Viruses. 2015 Nov 11; 7(11):5801-12. PMID: 26569286; PMCID: PMC4664984.
    32. Bower H, Grass JE, Veltus E, Brault A, Campbell S, Basile AJ, Wang D, Paddock CD, Erickson BR, Salzer JS, Belser J, Chege E, Seneca D, Saffa G, Stroeher U, Decroo T, Caleo GM. Delivery of an Ebola Virus-Positive Stillborn Infant in a Rural Community Health Center, Sierra Leone, 2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Feb; 94(2):417-9. PMID: 26556830; PMCID: PMC4751940 [Available on 02/03/17].
    33. Lambert AJ, Velez JO, Brault AC, Calvert AE, Bell-Sakyi L, Bosco-Lauth AM, Staples JE, Kosoy OI. Molecular, serological and in vitro culture-based characterization of Bourbon virus, a newly described human pathogen of the genus Thogotovirus. J Clin Virol. 2015 Dec; 73:127-132. PMID: 26609638.
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    34. Calvert AE, Brault AC. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against the Nucleoprotein of Heartland Virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Dec; 93(6):1338-40. PMID: 26503274.
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    35. Deen GF, Broutet N, Xu W, Knust B, Sesay FR, McDonald SLR, Ervin E, Marrinan JE, Gaillard P, Habib N, Liu H, Liu W, Thorson AE, Yamba F, Massaquoi TA, James F, Ariyarajah A, Ross C, Bernstein K, Coursier A, Klena J, Carino M, Wurie AH, Zhang Y, Dumbuya MS, Abad N, Idriss B, Wi T, Bennett SD, Davies T, Ebrahim FK, Meites E, Naidoo D, Smith SJ, Ongpin P, Malik T, Banerjee A, Erickson BR, Liu Y, Liu Y, Xu K, Brault A, Durski KN, Winter J, Sealy T, Nichol ST, Lamunu M, Bangura J, Landoulsi S, Jambai A, Morgan O, Wu G, Liang M, Su Q, Lan Y, Hao Y, Formenty P, Ströher U, Sahr F. Ebola RNA Persistence in Semen of Ebola Virus Disease Survivors - Final Report. N Engl J Med. 2017 10 12; 377(15):1428-1437. PMID: 26465681.
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    36. Lim SM, Brault AC, van Amerongen G, Bosco-Lauth AM, Romo H, Sewbalaksing VD, Bowen RA, Osterhaus AD, Koraka P, Martina BE. Susceptibility of Carrion Crows to Experimental Infection with Lineage 1 and 2 West Nile Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Aug; 21(8):1357-65. PMID: 26197093; PMCID: PMC4517732.
    37. Flint M, Goodman CH, Bearden S, Blau DM, Amman BR, Basile AJ, Belser JA, Bergeron É, Bowen MD, Brault AC, Campbell S, Chakrabarti AK, Dodd KA, Erickson BR, Freeman MM, Gibbons A, Guerrero LW, Klena JD, Lash RR, Lo MK, McMullan LK, Momoh G, Massally JL, Goba A, Paddock CD, Priestley RA, Pyle M, Rayfield M, Russell BJ, Salzer JS, Sanchez AJ, Schuh AJ, Sealy TK, Steinau M, Stoddard RA, Taboy C, Turnsek M, Wang D, Zemtsova GE, Zivcec M, Spiropoulou CF, Ströher U, Towner JS, Nichol ST, Bird BH. Ebola Virus Diagnostics: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Laboratory in Sierra Leone, August 2014 to March 2015. J Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 01; 212 Suppl 2:S350-8. PMID: 26232439.
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    38. Duggal NK, Reisen WK, Fang Y, Newman RM, Yang X, Ebel GD, Brault AC. Genotype-specific variation in West Nile virus dispersal in California. Virology. 2015 Nov; 485:79-85. PMID: 26210076; PMCID: PMC4619151 [Available on 11/01/16].
    39. Park DJ, Dudas G, Wohl S, Goba A, Whitmer SL, Andersen KG, Sealfon RS, Ladner JT, Kugelman JR, Matranga CB, Winnicki SM, Qu J, Gire SK, Gladden-Young A, Jalloh S, Nosamiefan D, Yozwiak NL, Moses LM, Jiang PP, Lin AE, Schaffner SF, Bird B, Towner J, Mamoh M, Gbakie M, Kanneh L, Kargbo D, Massally JL, Kamara FK, Konuwa E, Sellu J, Jalloh AA, Mustapha I, Foday M, Yillah M, Erickson BR, Sealy T, Blau D, Paddock C, Brault A, Amman B, Basile J, Bearden S, Belser J, Bergeron E, Campbell S, Chakrabarti A, Dodd K, Flint M, Gibbons A, Goodman C, Klena J, McMullan L, Morgan L, Russell B, Salzer J, Sanchez A, Wang D, Jungreis I, Tomkins-Tinch C, Kislyuk A, Lin MF, Chapman S, MacInnis B, Matthews A, Bochicchio J, Hensley LE, Kuhn JH, Nusbaum C, Schieffelin JS, Birren BW, Forget M, Nichol ST, Palacios GF, Ndiaye D, Happi C, Gevao SM, Vandi MA, Kargbo B, Holmes EC, Bedford T, Gnirke A, Ströher U, Rambaut A, Garry RF, Sabeti PC. Ebola Virus Epidemiology, Transmission, and Evolution during Seven Months in Sierra Leone. Cell. 2015 Jun 18; 161(7):1516-26. PMID: 26091036.
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    40. Grubaugh ND, Smith DR, Brackney DE, Bosco-Lauth AM, Fauver JR, Campbell CL, Felix TA, Romo H, Duggal NK, Dietrich EA, Eike T, Beane JE, Bowen RA, Black WC, Brault AC, Ebel GD. Experimental evolution of an RNA virus in wild birds: evidence for host-dependent impacts on population structure and competitive fitness. PLoS Pathog. 2015 May; 11(5):e1004874. PMID: 25993022; PMCID: PMC4439088.
    41. Worwa G, Wheeler SS, Brault AC, Reisen WK. Comparing competitive fitness of West Nile virus strains in avian and mosquito hosts. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0125668. PMID: 25965850; PMCID: PMC4428627.
    42. Bosco-Lauth AM, Panella NA, Root JJ, Gidlewski T, Lash RR, Harmon JR, Burkhalter KL, Godsey MS, Savage HM, Nicholson WL, Komar N, Brault AC. Serological investigation of heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) exposure in wild and domestic animals adjacent to human case sites in Missouri 2012-2013. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Jun; 92(6):1163-7. PMID: 25870419; PMCID: PMC4458820.
    43. Brault AC, Fang Y, Reisen WK. Multiplex qRT-PCR for the Detection of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viral RNA in Mosquito Pools (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2015 May; 52(3):491-9. PMID: 26334826; PMCID: PMC4581483.
    44. Dietrich EA, Bowen RA, Brault AC. An ex vivo avian leukocyte culture model for West Nile virus infection. J Virol Methods. 2015 Jun 15; 218:19-22. PMID: 25783683; PMCID: PMC4583197.
    45. Melian EB, Hall-Mendelin S, Du F, Owens N, Bosco-Lauth AM, Nagasaki T, Rudd S, Brault AC, Bowen RA, Hall RA, van den Hurk AF, Khromykh AA. Programmed ribosomal frameshift alters expression of west nile virus genes and facilitates virus replication in birds and mosquitoes. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Nov; 10(11):e1004447. PMID: 25375107; PMCID: PMC4223154.
    46. Duggal NK, Bosco-Lauth A, Bowen RA, Wheeler SS, Reisen WK, Felix TA, Mann BR, Romo H, Swetnam DM, Barrett AD, Brault AC. Evidence for co-evolution of West Nile Virus and house sparrows in North America. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Oct; 8(10):e3262. PMID: 25357248; PMCID: PMC4214623.
    47. Pauvolid-Corrêa A, Solberg O, Couto-Lima D, Kenney J, Serra-Freire N, Brault A, Nogueira R, Langevin S, Komar N. Nhumirim virus, a novel flavivirus isolated from mosquitoes from the Pantanal, Brazil. Arch Virol. 2015 Jan; 160(1):21-7. PMID: 25252815; PMCID: PMC4785999.
    48. Maharaj PD, Bolling BG, Anishchenko M, Reisen WK, Brault AC. Genetic determinants of differential oral infection phenotypes of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in Culex spp. mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Nov; 91(5):1066-72. PMID: 25157120; PMCID: PMC4228875.
    49. Kenney JL, Solberg OD, Langevin SA, Brault AC. Characterization of a novel insect-specific flavivirus from Brazil: potential for inhibition of infection of arthropod cells with medically important flaviviruses. J Gen Virol. 2014 Dec; 95(Pt 12):2796-808. PMID: 25146007; PMCID: PMC4582674.
    50. Bosco-Lauth A, Harmon JR, Lash RR, Weiss S, Langevin S, Savage HM, Godsey MS, Burkhalter K, Root JJ, Gidlewski T, Nicholson WL, Brault AC, Komar N. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012. J Wildl Dis. 2014 Oct; 50(4):976-8. PMID: 25098303; PMCID: PMC4786187.
    51. Langevin SA, Bowen RA, Reisen WK, Andrade CC, Ramey WN, Maharaj PD, Anishchenko M, Kenney JL, Duggal NK, Romo H, Bera AK, Sanders TA, Bosco-Lauth A, Smith JL, Kuhn R, Brault AC. Host competence and helicase activity differences exhibited by West Nile viral variants expressing NS3-249 amino acid polymorphisms. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100802. PMID: 24971589; PMCID: PMC4074097.
    52. Brenton AA, Souvannaseng L, Cheung K, Anishchenko M, Brault AC, Luckhart S. Engineered single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mosquito MEK docking site alter Plasmodium berghei development in Anopheles gambiae. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Jun 23; 7:287. PMID: 24957684; PMCID: PMC4077580.
    53. Lim SM, Brault AC, van Amerongen G, Sewbalaksing VD, Osterhaus AD, Martina BE, Koraka P. Susceptibility of European jackdaws (Corvus monedula) to experimental infection with lineage 1 and 2 West Nile viruses. J Gen Virol. 2014 Jun; 95(Pt 6):1320-9. PMID: 24671752; PMCID: PMC4582665.
    54. Kenney JL, Brault AC. The role of environmental, virological and vector interactions in dictating biological transmission of arthropod-borne viruses by mosquitoes. Adv Virus Res. 2014; 89:39-83. PMID: 24751194.
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    55. Worwa G, Andrade CC, Thiemann TC, Park B, Maharaj PD, Anishchenko M, Brault AC, Reisen WK. Allele-specific qRT-PCR demonstrates superior detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms as genetic markers for West Nile virus compared to Luminex® and quantitative sequencing. J Virol Methods. 2014 Jan; 195:76-85. PMID: 24121135; PMCID: PMC3856659.
    56. Pauvolid-Corrêa A, Kenney JL, Couto-Lima D, Campos ZM, Schatzmayr HG, Nogueira RM, Brault AC, Komar N. Ilheus virus isolation in the Pantanal, west-central Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(7):e2318. PMID: 23875051; PMCID: PMC3715421.
    57. Petersen LR, Brault AC, Nasci RS. West Nile virus: review of the literature. JAMA. 2013 Jul 17; 310(3):308-15. PMID: 23860989; PMCID: PMC4563989.
    58. Komar N, Panella NA, Young GR, Brault AC, Levy CE. Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Arizona. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Sep; 89(3):474-81. PMID: 23857022; PMCID: PMC3771284.
    59. Duggal NK, D'Anton M, Xiang J, Seiferth R, Day J, Nasci R, Brault AC. Sequence analyses of 2012 West Nile virus isolates from Texas fail to associate viral genetic factors with outbreak magnitude. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Aug; 89(2):205-10. PMID: 23817333; PMCID: PMC3741237.
    60. Huang CY, Kinney RM, Livengood JA, Bolling B, Arguello JJ, Luy BE, Silengo SJ, Boroughs KL, Stovall JL, Kalanidhi AP, Brault AC, Osorio JE, Stinchcomb DT. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of manufacturing seeds for a tetravalent dengue vaccine (DENVax). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(5):e2243. PMID: 23738026; PMCID: PMC3667780.
    61. Nofchissey RA, Deardorff ER, Blevins TM, Anishchenko M, Bosco-Lauth A, Berl E, Lubelczyk C, Mutebi JP, Brault AC, Ebel GD, Magnarelli LA. Seroprevalence of Powassan virus in New England deer, 1979-2010. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Jun; 88(6):1159-62. PMID: 23568288; PMCID: PMC3752817.
    62. Edmonds J, van Grinsven E, Prow N, Bosco-Lauth A, Brault AC, Bowen RA, Hall RA, Khromykh AA. A novel bacterium-free method for generation of flavivirus infectious DNA by circular polymerase extension reaction allows accurate recapitulation of viral heterogeneity. J Virol. 2013 Feb; 87(4):2367-72. PMID: 23236063; PMCID: PMC3571472.
    63. Beatman E, Oyer R, Shives KD, Hedman K, Brault AC, Tyler KL, Beckham JD. West Nile virus growth is independent of autophagy activation. Virology. 2012 Nov 10; 433(1):262-72. PMID: 22939285; PMCID: PMC3444629.
    64. Wheeler SS, Langevin SA, Brault AC, Woods L, Carroll BD, Reisen WK. Detection of persistent west nile virus RNA in experimentally and naturally infected avian hosts. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Sep; 87(3):559-64. PMID: 22826479; PMCID: PMC3435364.
    65. Brault AC, Fang Y, Dannen M, Anishchenko M, Reisen WK. A naturally occurring mutation within the probe-binding region compromises a molecular-based West Nile virus surveillance assay for mosquito pools (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2012 Jul; 49(4):939-41. PMID: 22897055; PMCID: PMC3541937.
    66. Clark DC, Brault AC, Hunsperger E. The contribution of rodent models to the pathological assessment of flaviviral infections of the central nervous system. Arch Virol. 2012 Aug; 157(8):1423-40. PMID: 22592957; PMCID: PMC4581843.
    67. Guerrero-Sánchez S, Cuevas-Romero S, Nemeth NM, Trujillo-Olivera MT, Worwa G, Dupuis A, Brault AC, Kramer LD, Komar N, Estrada-Franco JG. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Dec; 17(12):2245-52. PMID: 22172633; PMCID: PMC3311203.
    68. Brault AC, Langevin SA, Ramey WN, Fang Y, Beasley DW, Barker CM, Sanders TA, Reisen WK, Barrett AD, Bowen RA. Reduced avian virulence and viremia of West Nile virus isolates from Mexico and Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Oct; 85(4):758-67. PMID: 21976584; PMCID: PMC3183789.
    69. Maharaj PD, Anishchenko M, Langevin SA, Fang Y, Reisen WK, Brault AC. Structural gene (prME) chimeras of St Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus exhibit altered in vitro cytopathic and growth phenotypes. J Gen Virol. 2012 Jan; 93(Pt 1):39-49. PMID: 21940408; PMCID: PMC3352334.
    70. Saiyasombat R, Bolling BG, Brault AC, Bartholomay LC, Blitvich BJ. Evidence of efficient transovarial transmission of Culex flavivirus by Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2011 Sep; 48(5):1031-8. PMID: 21936322.
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    72. Papin JF, Verardi PH, Jones LA, Monge-Navarro F, Brault AC, Holbrook MR, Worthy MN, Freiberg AN, Yilma TD. Recombinant Rift Valley fever vaccines induce protective levels of antibody in baboons and resistance to lethal challenge in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 06; 108(36):14926-31. PMID: 21873194; PMCID: PMC3169153.
    73. Andrade CC, Maharaj PD, Reisen WK, Brault AC. North American West Nile virus genotype isolates demonstrate differential replicative capacities in response to temperature. J Gen Virol. 2011 Nov; 92(Pt 11):2523-33. PMID: 21775581; PMCID: PMC3352365.
    74. Tyler S, Bolling BG, Blair CD, Brault AC, Pabbaraju K, Armijos MV, Clark DC, Calisher CH, Drebot MA. Distribution and phylogenetic comparisons of a novel mosquito flavivirus sequence present in Culex tarsalis Mosquitoes from western Canada with viruses isolated in California and Colorado. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Jul; 85(1):162-8. PMID: 21734143; PMCID: PMC3122362.
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    76. Brault AC, Kinney RM, Maharaj PD, Green EN, Reisen WK, Huang CY. Replication of the primary dog kidney-53 dengue 2 virus vaccine candidate in Aedes aegypti is modulated by a mutation in the 5' untranslated region and amino acid substitutions in nonstructural proteins 1 and 3. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Jun; 11(6):683-9. PMID: 21284523.
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    77. Chen CI, Clark DC, Pesavento P, Lerche NW, Luciw PA, Reisen WK, Brault AC. Comparative pathogenesis of epidemic and enzootic Chikungunya viruses in a pregnant Rhesus macaque model. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Dec; 83(6):1249-58. PMID: 21118930; PMCID: PMC2990040.
    78. Volk SM, Chen R, Tsetsarkin KA, Adams AP, Garcia TI, Sall AA, Nasar F, Schuh AJ, Holmes EC, Higgs S, Maharaj PD, Brault AC, Weaver SC. Genome-scale phylogenetic analyses of chikungunya virus reveal independent emergences of recent epidemics and various evolutionary rates. J Virol. 2010 Jul; 84(13):6497-504. PMID: 20410280; PMCID: PMC2903258.
    79. Stockman J, Hawkins MG, Burns RE, Fang Y, Brault AC, Lowenstine LJ. West Nile virus infection in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloropterus). Avian Dis. 2010 Mar; 54(1):164-9. PMID: 20408419.
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    80. Nemeth NM, Young GR, Burkhalter KL, Brault AC, Reisen WK, Komar N. West Nile virus detection in nonvascular feathers from avian carcasses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009 Sep; 21(5):616-22. PMID: 19737756.
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    81. Brault AC, Armijos MV, Wheeler S, Wright S, Fang Y, Langevin S, Reisen WK. Stone Lakes virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a variant of Fort Morgan virus isolated from swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) west of the Continental Divide. J Med Entomol. 2009 Sep; 46(5):1203-9. PMID: 19769055; PMCID: PMC2775074.
    82. Fang Y, Brault AC, Reisen WK. Comparative thermostability of West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses during heat inactivation for serologic diagnostics. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 May; 80(5):862-3. PMID: 19407138.
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    83. Brault AC. Changing patterns of West Nile virus transmission: altered vector competence and host susceptibility. Vet Res. 2009 Mar-Apr; 40(2):43. PMID: 19406093; PMCID: PMC2695027.
    84. Logue CH, Bosio CF, Welte T, Keene KM, Ledermann JP, Phillips A, Sheahan BJ, Pierro DJ, Marlenee N, Brault AC, Bosio CM, Singh AJ, Powers AM, Olson KE. Virulence variation among isolates of western equine encephalitis virus in an outbred mouse model. J Gen Virol. 2009 Aug; 90(Pt 8):1848-58. PMID: 19403754; PMCID: PMC2887574.
    85. Coffey LL, Vasilakis N, Brault AC, Powers AM, Tripet F, Weaver SC. Arbovirus evolution in vivo is constrained by host alternation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 13; 105(19):6970-5. PMID: 18458341; PMCID: PMC2383930.
    86. Reisen WK, Fang Y, Brault AC. Limited interdecadal variation in mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) and avian host competence for Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Apr; 78(4):681-6. PMID: 18385369.
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    87. McAbee RD, Green EN, Holeman J, Christiansen J, Frye N, Dealey K, Mulligan FS, Brault AC, Cornel AJ. Identification of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in a hybrid zone of West Nile virus transmission in Fresno County, California. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Feb; 78(2):303-10. PMID: 18256434.
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    88. Brault AC, Huang CY, Langevin SA, Kinney RM, Bowen RA, Ramey WN, Panella NA, Holmes EC, Powers AM, Miller BR. A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows. Nat Genet. 2007 Sep; 39(9):1162-6. PMID: 17694056; PMCID: PMC2291521.
    89. Reisen W, Brault AC. West Nile virus in North America: perspectives on epidemiology and intervention. Pest Manag Sci. 2007 Jul; 63(7):641-6. PMID: 17373672.
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    90. Kinney RM, Huang CY, Whiteman MC, Bowen RA, Langevin SA, Miller BR, Brault AC. Avian virulence and thermostable replication of the North American strain of West Nile virus. J Gen Virol. 2006 Dec; 87(Pt 12):3611-22. PMID: 17098976.
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    91. Powers AM, Aguilar PV, Chandler LJ, Brault AC, Meakins TA, Watts D, Russell KL, Olson J, Vasconcelos PF, Da Rosa AT, Weaver SC, Tesh RB. Genetic relationships among Mayaro and Una viruses suggest distinct patterns of transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Sep; 75(3):461-9. PMID: 16968922.
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    92. Cannon AB, Luff JA, Brault AC, MacLachlan NJ, Case JB, Green EN, Sykes JE. Acute encephalitis, polyarthritis, and myocarditis associated with West Nile virus infection in a dog. J Vet Intern Med. 2006 Sep-Oct; 20(5):1219-23. PMID: 17063720.
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    93. Reisen WK, Fang Y, Lothrop HD, Martinez VM, Wilson J, Oconnor P, Carney R, Cahoon-Young B, Shafii M, Brault AC. Overwintering of West Nile virus in Southern California. J Med Entomol. 2006 Mar; 43(2):344-55. PMID: 16619621.
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    94. Deardorff E, Estrada-Franco J, Brault AC, Navarro-Lopez R, Campomanes-Cortes A, Paz-Ramirez P, Solis-Hernandez M, Ramey WN, Davis CT, Beasley DW, Tesh RB, Barrett AD, Weaver SC. Introductions of West Nile virus strains to Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Feb; 12(2):314-8. PMID: 16494762; PMCID: PMC3373085.
    95. Komar N, Panella NA, Langevin SA, Brault AC, Amador M, Edwards E, Owen JC. Avian hosts for West Nile virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Dec; 73(6):1031-7. PMID: 16354808.
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    96. Panella NA, Burkhalter KL, Langevin SA, Brault AC, Schooley LM, Biggerstaff BJ, Nasci RS, Komar N. Rapid West Nile virus antigen detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Oct; 11(10):1633-5. PMID: 16318713; PMCID: PMC3366728.
    97. Davis CT, Ebel GD, Lanciotti RS, Brault AC, Guzman H, Siirin M, Lambert A, Parsons RE, Beasley DW, Novak RJ, Elizondo-Quiroga D, Green EN, Young DS, Stark LM, Drebot MA, Artsob H, Tesh RB, Kramer LD, Barrett AD. Phylogenetic analysis of North American West Nile virus isolates, 2001-2004: evidence for the emergence of a dominant genotype. Virology. 2005 Nov 25; 342(2):252-65. PMID: 16137736.
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    98. Greene IP, Paessler S, Austgen L, Anishchenko M, Brault AC, Bowen RA, Weaver SC. Envelope glycoprotein mutations mediate equine amplification and virulence of epizootic venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2005 Jul; 79(14):9128-33. PMID: 15994807; PMCID: PMC1168750.
    99. Greene IP, Paessler S, Anishchenko M, Smith DR, Brault AC, Frolov I, Weaver SC. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the guinea pig model: evidence for epizootic virulence determinants outside the E2 envelope glycoprotein gene. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Mar; 72(3):330-8. PMID: 15772331.
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    100. Langevin SA, Brault AC, Panella NA, Bowen RA, Komar N. Variation in virulence of West Nile virus strains for house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jan; 72(1):99-102. PMID: 15728874.
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    101. Brault AC, Langevin SA, Bowen RA, Panella NA, Biggerstaff BJ, Miller BR, Komar N. Differential virulence of West Nile strains for American crows. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Dec; 10(12):2161-8. PMID: 15663854; PMCID: PMC1237116.
    102. Brault AC, Powers AM, Ortiz D, Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Weaver SC. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 03; 101(31):11344-9. PMID: 15277679; PMCID: PMC509205.
    103. Wang E, Brault AC, Powers AM, Kang W, Weaver SC. Glycosaminoglycan binding properties of natural venezuelan equine encephalitis virus isolates. J Virol. 2003 Jan; 77(2):1204-10. PMID: 12502837; PMCID: PMC140800.
    104. Brault AC, Powers AM, Weaver SC. Vector infection determinants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus reside within the E2 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2002 Jun; 76(12):6387-92. PMID: 12021373; PMCID: PMC136209.
    105. Brault AC, Powers AM, Holmes EC, Woelk CH, Weaver SC. Positively charged amino acid substitutions in the e2 envelope glycoprotein are associated with the emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2002 Feb; 76(4):1718-30. PMID: 11799167; PMCID: PMC135911.