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Richard Lee Applegate

Title(s)Professor, Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
SchoolUniversity of California, Davis
Phone916-734-5048
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Applegate Ii RL, Applegate PM, Cannesson M, Peiris P, Ladlie BL, Torp K. Multicenter comparison of three intraoperative hemoglobin trend monitoring methods. J Clin Monit Comput. 2019 Dec 03. PMID: 31797199.
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    2. Lee LK, Burns RA, Dhamrait RS, Carter HF, Vadi MG, Grogan TR, Elashoff DA, Applegate RL, Iravani M. Retrospective Cohort Study on the Optimal Timing of Orogastric Tube/Nasogastric Tube Insertion in Infants With Pyloric Stenosis. Anesth Analg. 2019 Oct; 129(4):1079-1086. PMID: 30234537.
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    3. Peng K, Li D, Applegate RL, Lubarsky DA, Ji FH, Liu H. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: A Meta-Analysis With Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2019 Sep 16. PMID: 31587928.
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    4. Lee LK, Woodfin MY, Vadi MG, Grogan TR, Ross PJ, Applegate RL, Iravani M. A comparison of postoperative outcomes with PDA ligation in the OR versus the NICU: a retrospective cohort study on the risks of transport. BMC Anesthesiol. 2018 12 22; 18(1):199. PMID: 30579349.
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    5. Hanna AH, Ramsingh D, Sullivan-Lewis W, Cano S, Leiter P, Wallace D, Andrews G, Austin B, Applegate RL. A comparison of midazolam and zolpidem as oral premedication in children, a prospective randomized double-blinded clinical trial. Paediatr Anaesth. 2018 12; 28(12):1109-1115. PMID: 30328648.
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    6. Huang L, Applegate RL, Applegate PM, Boling W, Zhang JH. Inhalation of high concentration hydrogen gas improves short-term outcomes in a rat model of asphyxia induced-cardiac arrest. Med Gas Res. 2018 Jul-Sep; 8(3):73-78. PMID: 30319760.
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    7. McBride DW, Reis C, Zhang JH, Applegate R, Tang J. Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning Attenuates Cerebrovascular Depression During Sinusoidal Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation via a1-Adrenoceptor-Protein Kinase Ce-Endothelial NO Synthase Pathway in Rats. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 03 24; 7(7). PMID: 29574462.
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    8. Liu H, Ji F, Peng K, Applegate RL, Fleming NW. In Response: Sedation After Cardiac Surgery With Propofol or Dexmedetomidine: Between Scylla and Charybdis? Anesth Analg. 2017 11; 125(5):1822-1823. PMID: 28914652.
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    9. Vadi MG, Roddy KJ, Ghazal EA, Um M, Neiheisel AJ, Applegate RL. Comparison of the GlideScope Cobalt® and Storz DCI® Video Laryngoscopes in Children Younger Than 2 Years of Age During Manual In-Line Stabilization: A Randomized Trainee Evaluation Study. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2017 Jul; 33(7):467-473. PMID: 26785097.
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    10. Chang E, Gatling JW, Bode S, Herrmann PC, Bull BS, Applegate RL. Extreme Plasma Dilution Decreases Heparin and Protamine Cardiopulmonary Bypass Requirements: A Case Report on a Jehovah's Witness Patient. A A Case Rep. 2017 Jun 01; 8(11):291-293. PMID: 28328588.
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    11. Liu H, Ji F, Peng K, Applegate RL, Fleming N. Sedation After Cardiac Surgery: Is One Drug Better Than Another? Anesth Analg. 2017 04; 124(4):1061-1070. PMID: 27984229.
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    12. Reis C, Akyol O, Ho WM, Araujo C, Huang L, Applegate R, Zhang JH. Phase I and Phase II Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update on Currently Studied Drugs in Clinical Research. Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:4863079. PMID: 28286764.
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    13. Kim CH, McBride DW, Raval R, Sherchan P, Hay KL, Gren EC, Kelln W, Lekic T, Hayes WK, Bull BS, Applegate R, Tang J, Zhang JH. Crotalus atrox venom preconditioning increases plasma fibrinogen and reduces perioperative hemorrhage in a rat model of surgical brain injury. Sci Rep. 2017 01 19; 7:40821. PMID: 28102287.
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    14. Vora FM, Gates J, Gerard K, Hanson S, Applegate RL, Blood AB. Use of Esophageal Hemoximetry to Assess the Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Gastrointestinal Oxygenation in Newborn Infants. Am J Perinatol. 2017 07; 34(8):735-741. PMID: 28099981.
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    15. Ho WM, Reis C, Akyol O, Akyol GY, Applegate R, Stier G, Martin R, Zhang JH. Pharmacological Management Options to Prevent and Reduce Ischemic Hemorrhagic Transformation. Curr Drug Targets. 2017; 18(12):1441-1459. PMID: 27538508.
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    16. Chang MM, Raval RN, Southerland JJ, Adewumi DA, Bahjri KA, Samuel RK, Woods RO, Ajayi OO, Lee BS, Hsu FP, Applegate Ii RL, Dorotta IR. Beta Blockade and Clinical Outcomes in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Open Neurol J. 2016; 10:155-163. PMID: 28217182.
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    17. Applegate PM, Applegate RL. In Response. Anesth Analg. 2016 12; 123(6):1643-1644. PMID: 27782946.
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    18. McBride DW, Reis C, Frank E, Klebe DW, Zhang JH, Applegate R, Tang J. An Experimental Model of Vasovagal Syncope Induces Cerebral Hypoperfusion and Fainting-Like Behavior in Awake Rats. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0163280. PMID: 27658057.
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    19. Vadi MG, Ghazal EA, Malkin MR, Ayodeji A, Applegate RL. Continuous Noninvasive Hemodynamic Monitoring in an Infant With Tetra-Amelia. A A Case Rep. 2016 Sep 15; 7(6):123-4. PMID: 27513971.
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    20. Applegate RL, Dorotta IL, Wells B, Juma D, Applegate PM. The Relationship Between Oxygen Reserve Index and Arterial Partial Pressure of Oxygen During Surgery. Anesth Analg. 2016 09; 123(3):626-33. PMID: 27007078.
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    21. Carter HF, Lau C, Juma D, Wells B, Applegate RL. Intraoperative Red Blood Cell Transfusion in Infant Heart Transplant Patients Is Not Associated with Worsened Outcomes. Anesth Analg. 2016 May; 122(5):1567-77. PMID: 27101500.
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    22. Vadi MG, Malkin MR, Lenart J, Stier GR, Gatling JW, Applegate RL. Comparison of web-based and face-to-face interviews for application to an anesthesiology training program: a pilot study. Int J Med Educ. 2016 Apr 03; 7:102-8. PMID: 27039029.
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    23. Applegate RL, Lenart J, Malkin M, Meineke MN, Qoshlli S, Neumann M, Jacobson JP, Kruger A, Ching J, Hassanian M, Um M. Advanced Monitoring Is Associated with Fewer Alarm Events During Planned Moderate Procedure-Related Sedation: A 2-Part Pilot Trial. Anesth Analg. 2016 Apr; 122(4):1070-8. PMID: 26836134.
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    24. Vadi MG, Ghazal EA, Halverson B, Applegate RL. COMPARISON OF INDIRECT VIDEO LARYNGOSCOPES IN CHILDREN YOUNGER THAN TWO YEARS OF AGE: A RANDOMIZED TRAINEE EVALUATION STUDY. Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2016 Feb; 23(4):401-10. PMID: 27382808.
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    25. Wong CM, Ghazal EA, Dyleski RA, Applegate RL. Management of Near-Complete Airway Obstruction Caused by a Vallecular Cyst in an Infant Using a Tongue Tip Traction Suture. A A Case Rep. 2016 Jan 15; 6(2):31-3. PMID: 26599736.
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    26. Komanapalli ES, Sherchan P, Rolland W, Khatibi N, Martin RD, Applegate RL, Tang J, Zhang JH. Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid Pretreatment Provides Neuroprotection Following Surgically Induced Brain Injury in a Rat Model. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 121:311-5. PMID: 26463967.
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    27. Huang L, Woo W, Sherchan P, Khatibi NH, Krafft P, Rolland W, Applegate RL, Martin RD, Zhang J. Valproic Acid Pretreatment Reduces Brain Edema in a Rat Model of Surgical Brain Injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 121:305-10. PMID: 26463966.
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    28. Benggon M, Chen H, Applegate RL, Zhang J. Thrombin Preconditioning in Surgical Brain Injury in Rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 121:299-304. PMID: 26463965.
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    29. Pakkianathan C, Benggon M, Khatibi NH, Chen H, Marcantonio S, Applegate R, Tang J, Zhang J. Propofol Pretreatment Fails to Provide Neuroprotection Following a Surgically Induced Brain Injury Rat Model. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 121:323-7. PMID: 26463969.
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    30. Huang L, Sherchan P, Wang Y, Reis C, Applegate RL, Tang J, Zhang JH. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Gamma Contributes to Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Surgical Brain Injury. J Neurosci. 2015 Jul 22; 35(29):10390-401. PMID: 26203135.
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    31. Reis C, Wang Y, Akyol O, Ho WM, Ii RA, Stier G, Martin R, Zhang JH. What's New in Traumatic Brain Injury: Update on Tracking, Monitoring and Treatment. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 May 26; 16(6):11903-65. PMID: 26016501.
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    32. Wang Y, Reis C, Applegate R, Stier G, Martin R, Zhang JH. Ischemic conditioning-induced endogenous brain protection: Applications pre-, per- or post-stroke. Exp Neurol. 2015 Oct; 272:26-40. PMID: 25900056.
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    33. Doycheva DM, Hadley T, Li L, Applegate RL, Zhang JH, Tang J. Anti-neutrophil antibody enhances the neuroprotective effects of G-CSF by decreasing number of neutrophils in hypoxic ischemic neonatal rat model. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Sep; 69:192-9. PMID: 24874543.
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    34. Huang L, Applegate PM, Gatling JW, Mangus DB, Zhang J, Applegate RL. A systematic review of neuroprotective strategies after cardiac arrest: from bench to bedside (part II-comprehensive protection). Med Gas Res. 2014; 4:10. PMID: 25671079.
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    35. Mangus DB, Huang L, Applegate PM, Gatling JW, Zhang J, Applegate RL. A systematic review of neuroprotective strategies after cardiac arrest: from bench to bedside (Part I - Protection via specific pathways). Med Gas Res. 2014; 4:9. PMID: 24808942.
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    36. Nour C, Ratsiu J, Singh N, Mason L, Ray A, Martin M, Hassanian M, Uhler J, Applegate RL. Analgesic effectiveness of acetaminophen for primary cleft palate repair in young children: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Paediatr Anaesth. 2014 Jun; 24(6):574-81. PMID: 24697925.
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    37. Meineke M, Applegate RL, Rasmussen T, Anderson D, Azer S, Mehdizadeh A, Kim A, Allard M. Cognitive dysfunction following desflurane versus sevoflurane general anesthesia in elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. Med Gas Res. 2014 Mar 25; 4(1):6. PMID: 24666542.
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    38. Wang M, Zhang JH, Applegate RL. Adverse effect of inhalational anesthetics on the developing brain. Med Gas Res. 2014 Feb 14; 4(1):2. PMID: 24528992.
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    39. Deng J, Lenart J, Applegate RL. General anesthesia soon after dialysis may increase postoperative hypotension - A pilot study. Heart Lung Vessel. 2014; 6(1):52-9. PMID: 24800198.
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    40. Leitzke AS, Rolland WB, Krafft PR, Lekic T, Klebe D, Flores JJ, Van Allen NR, Applegate RL, Zhang JH. Isoflurane post-treatment ameliorates GMH-induced brain injury in neonatal rats. Stroke. 2013 Dec; 44(12):3587-90. PMID: 24149004.
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    41. Brauer SD, Applegate RL, Jameson JJ, Hay KL, Lauer RE, Herrmann PC, Bull BS. Association of plasma dilution with cardiopulmonary bypass-associated bleeding and morbidity. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013 Oct; 27(5):845-52. PMID: 23791494.
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    42. Applegate RL, Ramsingh DS, Dorotta I, Sanghvi C, Blood AB. Evaluation of multiple modes of oximetry monitoring as an index of splanchnic blood flow in a newborn lamb model of hypoxic, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stress. Shock. 2013 Jun; 39(6):501-6. PMID: 23603766.
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    43. Patel P, Meineke MN, Rasmussen T, Anderson DL, Brown J, Siddighi S, Applegate RL. The relationship of intravenous dextrose administration during emergence from anesthesia to postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2013 Jul; 117(1):34-42. PMID: 23687231.
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    44. Applegate RL, Gildea B, Patchin R, Rook JL, Wolford B, Nyirady J, Dawes TA, Faltys J, Ramsingh DS, Stier G. Telemedicine pre-anesthesia evaluation: a randomized pilot trial. Telemed J E Health. 2013 Mar; 19(3):211-6. PMID: 23384334.
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    45. Ramsingh DS, Sanghvi C, Gamboa J, Cannesson M, Applegate RL. Outcome impact of goal directed fluid therapy during high risk abdominal surgery in low to moderate risk patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Monit Comput. 2013 Jun; 27(3):249-57. PMID: 23264068.
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    46. Doycheva D, Shih G, Chen H, Applegate R, Zhang JH, Tang J. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in combination with stem cell factor confers greater neuroprotection after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the neonatal rats than a solitary treatment. Transl Stroke Res. 2013 Apr; 4(2):171-8. PMID: 23565130.
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    47. Van Allen NR, Krafft PR, Leitzke AS, Applegate RL, Tang J, Zhang JH. The role of Volatile Anesthetics in Cardioprotection: a systematic review. Med Gas Res. 2012 Aug 28; 2(1):22. PMID: 22929111.
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    48. Applegate R, Hayre NR, Singh RR, Lin T, Day AG, Gingras MJ. Vindication of Yb2Ti2O7 as a model exchange quantum spin ice. Phys Rev Lett. 2012 Aug 31; 109(9):097205. PMID: 23002878.
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    49. Ghazal E, Amin A, Wu A, Felema B, Applegate RL. Impact of rocuronium vs succinylcholine neuromuscular blocking drug choice for laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: is there a difference in time to transport to recovery? Paediatr Anaesth. 2013 Apr; 23(4):316-21. PMID: 22784242.
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    50. Benggon M, Chen H, Applegate R, Martin R, Zhang JH. Effect of dexmedetomidine on brain edema and neurological outcomes in surgical brain injury in rats. Anesth Analg. 2012 Jul; 115(1):154-9. PMID: 22584551.
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    51. Applegate RL, Barr SJ, Collier CE, Rook JL, Mangus DB, Allard MW. Evaluation of pulse cooximetry in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery. Anesthesiology. 2012 Jan; 116(1):65-72. PMID: 22133758.
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    52. Ayer RE, Jafarian N, Chen W, Applegate RL, Colohan AR, Zhang JH. Preoperative mucosal tolerance to brain antigens and a neuroprotective immune response following surgical brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2012 Jan; 116(1):246-53. PMID: 22017304.
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    53. Khatibi NH, Ma Q, Rolland W, Ostrowski R, Fathali N, Martin R, Applegate R, Stier G, Tang J, Zhang JH. Isoflurane posttreatment reduces brain injury after an intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in mice. Anesth Analg. 2011 Aug; 113(2):343-8. PMID: 21596881.
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    54. Jafarian N, Neumann M, Applegate RL, Ayer R. Successful labor epidural analgesia 10 days after an epidural blood patch. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2011 Apr; 20(2):194-5. PMID: 21376565.
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    55. Jafarian N, Ayer R, Eckermann J, Tong W, Jafarian N, Applegate RL, Stier G, Martin R, Tang J, Zhang JH. Mucosal tolerance to brain antigens preserves endogenous TGFß-1 and improves neurological outcomes following experimental craniotomy. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011; 111:283-7. PMID: 21725769.
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    56. Khatibi NH, Jadhav V, Matus B, Fathali N, Martin R, Applegate R, Tang J, Zhang JH. Prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptor inhibition fails to provide neuroprotection in surgically induced brain-injured mice. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011; 111:277-81. PMID: 21725768.
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    57. Khatibi NH, Lee LK, Zhou Y, Chen W, Rolland W, Fathali N, Martin R, Applegate R, Stier G, Zhang JH. Endothelin receptor-A (ETa) inhibition fails to improve neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011; 111:207-12. PMID: 21725757.
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    58. Macknet MR, Allard M, Applegate RL, Rook J. The accuracy of noninvasive and continuous total hemoglobin measurement by pulse CO-Oximetry in human subjects undergoing hemodilution. Anesth Analg. 2010 Dec; 111(6):1424-6. PMID: 21048100.
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    59. Neumann MM, Davio MB, Macknet MR, Applegate RL. Dexmedetomidine for awake fiberoptic intubation in a parturient with spinal muscular atrophy type III for cesarean delivery. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2009 Oct; 18(4):403-7. PMID: 19733055.
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    60. Dorotta I, Kimball-Jones P, Applegate R. Deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest in adults. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007 Mar; 11(1):66-76. PMID: 17484175.
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    61. Kerr RH, Applegate RL. Accurate placement of the right atrial air aspiration catheter: a descriptive study and prospective trial of intravascular electrocardiography. Anesth Analg. 2006 Aug; 103(2):435-8, table of contents. PMID: 16861429.
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    62. Ashwal S, Holshouser BA, del Rio MJ, Tong KA, Applegate RL, Bailey LL. Serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Pediatr Neurol. 2003 Aug; 29(2):99-110. PMID: 14580652.
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    63. Sardari FF, Schlunt ML, Applegate RL, Gundry SR. The use of transesophageal echocardiography to guide sternal division for cardiac operations via mini-sternotomy. J Card Surg. 1997 Mar-Apr; 12(2):67-70. PMID: 9271723.
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    64. Cole DJ, Drummond JC, Patel PM, Nary JC, Applegate RL. Effect of oncotic pressure of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) on brain injury after temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Anesth Analg. 1996 Aug; 83(2):342-7. PMID: 8694316.
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    65. Schell RM, Applegate RL, Cole DJ. Salt, starch, and water on the brain. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 1996 Apr; 8(2):178-82. PMID: 8829567.
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    66. Bailey LL, Gundry SR, Razzouk AJ, Wang N, Sciolaro CM, Chiavarelli M. Bless the babies: one hundred fifteen late survivors of heart transplantation during the first year of life. The Loma Linda University Pediatric Heart Transplant Group. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993 May; 105(5):805-14; discussion 814-5. PMID: 8487560.
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    67. Hozumi T, Shakudo M, Applegate R, Shah PM. Accuracy of cardiac output estimation with biplane transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1993 Jan-Feb; 6(1):62-8. PMID: 8439424.
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    68. Schell RM, Shah PM, Applegate RL, Shah PM, Schmidt CA. Remote asynergy detected by biplane transesophageal echocardiography during myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg. 1991 Nov; 73(5):642-5. PMID: 1952148.
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    69. Schell RM, Brauer FS, Cole DJ, Applegate RL. Persistent sacral nerve root deficits after continuous spinal anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth. 1991 Oct; 38(7):908-11. PMID: 1742828.
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