Karen Shapiro

Title(s)Associate Professor, School of Veterinary Medicine
SchoolSchool of Veterinary Medicine
Address5303 VM3A
CA 95616
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    1. High prevalence and diversity of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in feral cat feces from coastal California. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2023 Dec; 17(12):e0011829. Zhu S, Camp L, Patel A, VanWormer E, Shapiro K. PMID: 38100522; PMCID: PMC10756541.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    2. Whole genome enrichment approach for genomic surveillance of Toxoplasma gondii. Food Microbiol. 2024 Apr; 118:104403. Sundararaman B, Shapiro K, Packham A, Camp LE, Meyer RS, Shapiro B, Green RE. PMID: 38049278.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    3. Molecular detection and viability discrimination of zoonotic protozoan pathogens in oysters and seawater. Int J Food Microbiol. 2023 Dec 16; 407:110391. Kim M, Rueda L, Packham A, Moore J, Wuertz S, Shapiro K. PMID: 37742524.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    4. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Oocyst Versus Bradyzoite Foodborne Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil. Pathogens. 2023 Jun 25; 12(7). Zhu S, VanWormer E, Martínez-López B, Bahia-Oliveira LMG, DaMatta RA, Rodrigues PS, Shapiro K. PMID: 37513717; PMCID: PMC10384504.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. More people, more cats, more parasites: Human population density and temperature variation predict prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst shedding in free-ranging domestic and wild felids. PLoS One. 2023; 18(6):e0286808. Zhu S, VanWormer E, Shapiro K. PMID: 37343040; PMCID: PMC10284397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Model training periods impact estimation of COVID-19 incidence from wastewater viral loads. Sci Total Environ. 2023 Feb 01; 858(Pt 1):159680. Daza-Torres ML, Montesinos-López JC, Kim M, Olson R, Bess CW, Rueda L, Susa M, Tucker L, García YE, Schmidt AJ, Naughton CC, Pollock BH, Shapiro K, Nuño M, Bischel HN. PMID: 36306854; PMCID: PMC9597566.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    7. SARS-CoV-2 RNA Is Readily Detectable at Least 8 Months after Shedding in an Isolation Facility. mSphere. 2022 12 21; 7(6):e0017722. Coil DA, Pechacek R, Kaze M, Zuniga-Montanez R, Guerrero RG, Eisen JA, Shapiro K, Bischel HN. PMID: 36218344; PMCID: PMC9769851.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    8. Wastewater-Based Epidemiology for COVID-19: Handling qPCR Nondetects and Comparing Spatially Granular Wastewater and Clinical Data Trends. ACS ES T Water. 2022 Nov 11; 2(11):2114-2124. Safford H, Zuniga-Montanez RE, Kim M, Wu X, Wei L, Sharpnack J, Shapiro K, Bischel HN. PMID: 37552742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    9. Association of zoonotic protozoan parasites with microplastics in seawater and implications for human and wildlife health. Sci Rep. 2022 04 26; 12(1):6532. Zhang E, Kim M, Rueda L, Rochman C, VanWormer E, Moore J, Shapiro K. PMID: 35474071; PMCID: PMC9042925.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    10. The challenge of SARS-CoV-2 environmental monitoring in schools using floors and portable HEPA filtration units: Fresh or relic RNA? PLoS One. 2022; 17(4):e0267212. Zuniga-Montanez R, Coil DA, Eisen JA, Pechacek R, Guerrero RG, Kim M, Shapiro K, Bischel HN. PMID: 35452479; PMCID: PMC9032406.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    11. Opinion: Wastewater analysis can be a powerful public health tool-if it's done sensibly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 02 08; 119(6). Safford HR, Shapiro K, Bischel HN. PMID: 35115406; PMCID: PMC8833183.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    13. Dynamics and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst shedding in domestic and wild felids. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2022 Sep; 69(5):2412-2423. Zhu S, Shapiro K, VanWormer E. PMID: 34153160.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. Sarcocystis neurona Transmission from Opossums to Marine Mammals in the Pacific Northwest. Ecohealth. 2021 03; 18(1):84-94. O'Byrne AM, Lambourn DM, Rejmanek D, Haman K, O'Byrne M, VanWormer E, Shapiro K. PMID: 34213686; PMCID: PMC8367900.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    15. A metabarcoding approach for detecting protozoan pathogens in wild oysters from Prince Edward Island, Canada. Int J Food Microbiol. 2021 Dec 16; 360:109315. DeMone C, Trenton McClure J, Greenwood SJ, Fung R, Hwang MH, Feng Z, Shapiro K. PMID: 34215423.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    16. Quantification of viable protozoan parasites on leafy greens using molecular methods. Food Microbiol. 2021 Oct; 99:103816. Kim M, Shapiro K, Rajal VB, Packham A, Aguilar B, Rueda L, Wuertz S. PMID: 34119101.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    17. Clams and potential foodborne Toxoplasma gondii in Nunavut, Canada. Zoonoses Public Health. 2021 05; 68(3):277-283. Fung R, Manore AJW, Harper SL, Sargeant JM, Shirley J, Caughey A, Shapiro K. PMID: 33655709.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    18. Application of next generation sequencing for detection of protozoan pathogens in shellfish. Food Waterborne Parasitol. 2020 Dec; 21:e00096. DeMone C, Hwang MH, Feng Z, McClure JT, Greenwood SJ, Fung R, Kim M, Weese JS, Shapiro K. PMID: 33299933; PMCID: PMC7708651.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10  
    19. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in locally harvested clams in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 06; 67(4):352-361. Manore AJW, Harper SL, Sargeant JM, Weese JS, Cunsolo A, Bunce A, Shirley J, Sudlovenick E, Shapiro K. PMID: 32065491.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. Seasonal and spatial variation in Toxoplasma gondii contamination in soil in urban public spaces in California, United States. Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 02; 67(1):70-78. de Wit LA, Kilpatrick AM, VanWormer E, Croll DA, Tershy BR, Kim M, Shapiro K. PMID: 31677251.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Type X strains of Toxoplasma gondii are virulent for southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and present in felids from nearby watersheds. Proc Biol Sci. 2019 08 28; 286(1909):20191334. Shapiro K, VanWormer E, Packham A, Dodd E, Conrad PA, Miller M. PMID: 31431162; PMCID: PMC6732395.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    22. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Zoonoses Public Health. 2019 11; 66(7):813-825. Julien DA, Sargeant JM, Guy RA, Shapiro K, Imai RK, Bunce A, Sudlovenick E, Chen S, Li J, Harper SL. PMID: 31305029.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    23. Simultaneous detection of four protozoan parasites on leafy greens using a novel multiplex PCR assay. Food Microbiol. 2019 Dec; 84:103252. Shapiro K, Kim M, Rajal VB, Arrowood MJ, Packham A, Aguilar B, Wuertz S. PMID: 31421749.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    24. Comparison of PCR assays to detect Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in green-lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus). Parasitol Res. 2019 Aug; 118(8):2389-2398. Coupe A, Howe L, Shapiro K, Roe WD. PMID: 31197544.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Environmental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii: Oocysts in water, soil and food. Food Waterborne Parasitol. 2019 Jun; 15:e00049. Shapiro K, Bahia-Oliveira L, Dixon B, Dumètre A, de Wit LA, VanWormer E, Villena I. PMID: 32095620; PMCID: PMC7033973.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 96  
    26. Structure, composition, and roles of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst and sporocyst walls. Cell Surf. 2019 Dec; 5:100016. Freppel W, Ferguson DJP, Shapiro K, Dubey JP, Puech PH, Dumètre A. PMID: 32743133; PMCID: PMC7389338.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20  
    27. Comparison of freeze-thaw cycles for nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental matrices. J Microbiol Methods. 2019 01; 156:1-4. Manore AJW, Harper SL, Aguilar B, Weese JS, Shapiro K. PMID: 30468750.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Fecal indicator bacteria and zoonotic pathogens in marine snow and California mussels (Mytilus californianus). FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 11 01; 94(11). Shapiro K, Silver M, Byrne BA, Berardi T, Aguilar B, Melli A, Smith WA. PMID: 30239730.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    29. Effects of salinity and transparent exopolymer particles on formation of aquatic aggregates and their association with norovirus. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Dec 01; 643:1514-1521. Hanley KT, Wuertz S, Schriewer A, Passow U, Smith W, Olin P, Shapiro K. PMID: 30189567.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. First report of Toxoplasma gondii sporulated oocysts and Giardia duodenalis in commercial green-lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus) in New Zealand. Parasitol Res. 2018 May; 117(5):1453-1463. Coupe A, Howe L, Burrows E, Sine A, Pita A, Velathanthiri N, Vallée E, Hayman D, Shapiro K, Roe WD. PMID: 29550995.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Parasitology. 2016 11; 143(13):1703-1712. Schott KC, Krusor C, Tinker MT, Moore J, Conrad PA, Shapiro K. PMID: 27573192.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    32. Coastal development and precipitation drive pathogen flow from land to sea: evidence from a Toxoplasma gondii and felid host system. Sci Rep. 2016 07 26; 6:29252. VanWormer E, Carpenter TE, Singh P, Shapiro K, Wallender WW, Conrad PA, Largier JL, Maneta MP, Mazet JA, Mazet JA. PMID: 27456911; PMCID: PMC4960600.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    33. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona. Parasitology. 2016 05; 143(6):762-9. Michaels L, Rejmanek D, Aguilar B, Conrad P, Shapiro K. PMID: 27003262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    34. Comparable levels of microbial contamination in soil and on tomato crops after drip irrigation with treated wastewater or potable water. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 2016 Jan 1; 215(Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77 2011):140-150. Orlofsky OE, Bernstein BN, Sacks SM, Vonshak VA, Benami BM, Kundu KA, Maki MM, Smith SW, Wuertz WS, Shapiro SK, Gillor GO. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    35. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2016 Apr; 5(1):5-16. Girard YA, Johnson CK, Fritz HM, Shapiro K, Packham AE, Melli AC, Carlson-Bremer D, Gulland FM, Rejmanek D, Conrad PA. PMID: 27141438; PMCID: PMC4840268.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2  
    36. Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Parasitology. 2016 Mar; 143(3):276-88. Shapiro K, Miller MA, Packham AE, Aguilar B, Conrad PA, Vanwormer E, Murray MJ. PMID: 26494610.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Neuromuscul Disord. 2016 Jan; 26(1):85-93. Aleman M, Shapiro K, Sisó S, Williams DC, Rejmanek D, Aguilar B, Conrad PA. PMID: 26522989.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems. Environ Microbiol. 2015 Nov; 17(11):4527-37. Krusor C, Smith WA, Tinker MT, Silver M, Conrad PA, Shapiro K. PMID: 26033089.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Effects of transparent exopolymer particles and suspended particles on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in seawater. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015 Mar; 91(3). Davidson MC, Berardi T, Aguilar B, Byrne BA, Shapiro K. PMID: 25764565.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Surveillance for Toxoplasma gondii in California mussels (Mytilus californianus) reveals transmission of atypical genotypes from land to sea. Environ Microbiol. 2015 Nov; 17(11):4177-88. Shapiro K, VanWormer E, Aguilar B, Conrad PA. PMID: 25367256.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    41. Aquatic polymers can drive pathogen transmission in coastal ecosystems. Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Nov 22; 281(1795). Shapiro K, Krusor C, Mazzillo FF, Conrad PA, Largier JL, Mazet JA, Mazet JA, Silver MW. PMID: 25297861; PMCID: PMC4213613.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Dec; 80(24):7732-40. Adell AD, Smith WA, Shapiro K, Melli A, Conrad PA. PMID: 25281384; PMCID: PMC4249232.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella shed by captive and free-range California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from a rehabilitation center and three state reserves along the California coast. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Sep; 45(3):527-33. Berardi T, Shapiro K, Byrne BA, Miller W. PMID: 25314819.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    44. Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoal pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale, model-based approach. Sci Total Environ. 2014 Sep 15; 493:1036-46. Daniels ME, Hogan J, Smith WA, Oates SC, Miller MA, Hardin D, Shapiro K, Los Huertos M, Conrad PA, Dominik C, Watson FG. PMID: 25016109.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    45. A new pathogen transmission mechanism in the ocean: the case of sea otter exposure to the land-parasite Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82477. Mazzillo FF, Shapiro K, Silver MW. PMID: 24386100; PMCID: PMC3867372.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    46. Attempted detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental waters using a simple approach to evaluate the potential for waterborne transmission in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Ecohealth. 2014 Jun; 11(2):207-14. Verant ML, d'Ozouville N, Parker PG, Shapiro K, VanWormer E, Deem SL. PMID: 24306552.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Simultaneous detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts in soil using immunomagnetic separation and direct fluorescent antibody staining. J Microbiol Methods. 2013 Sep; 94(3):375-7. Orlofsky E, Gillor O, Melli A, Miller W, Wuertz S, Bernstein N, Shapiro K. PMID: 23911570.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Mar; 79(6):1859-65. Hogan JN, Daniels ME, Watson FG, Oates SC, Miller MA, Conrad PA, Shapiro K, Hardin D, Dominik C, Melli A, Jessup DA, Miller WA. PMID: 23315738; PMCID: PMC3592235.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    49. Research commentary: Association of zoonotic pathogens with fresh, estuarine, and marine macroaggregates. Microb Ecol. 2013 May; 65(4):928-33. Shapiro K, Miller WA, Silver MW, Odagiri M, Largier JL, Conrad PA, Mazet JA, Mazet JA. PMID: 23250114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    50. Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human-animal-environment interface. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013 May; 36(3):217-31. VanWormer E, Fritz H, Shapiro K, Mazet JA, Mazet JA, Conrad PA. PMID: 23218130; PMCID: PMC3779781.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Temporal association between land-based runoff events and California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) protozoal mortalities. J Wildl Dis. 2012 Apr; 48(2):394-404. Shapiro K, Miller M, Mazet J, Mazet J. PMID: 22493114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    52. Association of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts with fresh, estuarine, and marine macroaggregates. Limnology and Oceanography. 2012 Mar 1; 57(2):449-456. Shapiro SK, Silver SM, Largier LJ, Conrad CP, Mazet MJ. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    53. Climate and coastal habitat change: a recipe for a dirtier ocean. Mar Pollut Bull. 2012 Jun; 64(6):1079-80. Shapiro K. PMID: 22341407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:PHPublic Health
    54. Effect of estuarine wetland degradation on transport of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from land to sea. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Oct; 76(20):6821-8. Shapiro K, Conrad PA, Mazet JA, Mazet JA, Wallender WW, Miller WA, Largier JL. PMID: 20802072; PMCID: PMC2953021.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    55. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres in water using ultrafiltration and capsule filtration. Water Res. 2010 Feb; 44(3):893-903. Shapiro K, Mazet JA, Mazet JA, Schriewer A, Wuertz S, Fritz H, Miller WA, Largier J, Conrad PA. PMID: 19836820.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Surface properties of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Feb; 75(4):1185-91. Shapiro K, Largier J, Mazet JA, Mazet JA, Bernt W, Ell JR, Melli AC, Conrad PA. PMID: 19060174; PMCID: PMC2643564.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
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