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Francisco A. Uzal

TitleProfessor of Clinical
InstitutionUniversity of California Davis
DepartmentCalifornia Animal Health & Food Safety Lab
AddressSan Bernardino Lab
CA 92408
Phone909-383-4287
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Evaluating the Clostridium perfringens Agr-like Quorum Sensing System as a Therapeutic Target
    NIH/NIAID R21AI140010Jun 12, 2018 - May 31, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Pathogenic Contributions of Clostridium perfringens NanI Sialidase
    NIH/NIAID R21AI125796May 17, 2016 - Apr 30, 2018
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Clostridium perfringens Type B-D Virulence Plasmids
    NIH/NIAID R01AI056177Jul 1, 2003 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Macías-Rioseco M, Mirazo S, Uzal FA, Fraga M, Silveira C, Maya L, Riet-Correa F, Arbiza J, Colina R, Anderson ML, Giannitti F. Fetal Pathology in an Aborted Holstein Fetus Infected With Bovine Parainfluenza Virus-3 Genotype A. Vet Pathol. 2018 Sep 24; 300985818798117. PMID: 30244663.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Shrestha A, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Enterotoxic Clostridia: Clostridium perfringens Enteric Diseases. Microbiol Spectr. 2018 Sep; 6(5). PMID: 30238869.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Carvallo FR, Moore JD, Nyaoke AC, Huang L, Crossley BM, Uzal FA. Diagnosis of virulent Newcastle disease in southern California, May 2018. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 Jul; 30(4):493-494. PMID: 29952744.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Uzal FA, Navarro MA, Li J, Freedman JC, Shrestha A, McClane BA. Comparative pathogenesis of enteric clostridial infections in humans and animals. Anaerobe. 2018 Jun 05. PMID: 29883627.
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    5. Reissig EC, Massone AR, Iovanitti B, Gimeno EJ, Uzal FA. A SURVEY OF PARASITE LESIONS IN WILD RED DEER ( CERVUS ELAPHUS) FROM ARGENTINA. J Wildl Dis. 2018 May 23. PMID: 29791294.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Navarro MA, McClane BA, Uzal FA. Mechanisms of Action and Cell Death Associated with Clostridium perfringens Toxins. Toxins (Basel). 2018 May 22; 10(5). PMID: 29786671.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Fernandez JA, Hidalgo MN, Hodzic E, Diab SS, Uzal FA. Pathology of coccidioidomycosis in llamas and alpacas. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 May 01; 1040638718777282. PMID: 29790449.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Freedman JC, Navarro MA, Morrell E, Beingesser J, Shrestha A, McClane BA, Uzal FA. Evidence that Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin-Induced Intestinal Damage and Enterotoxemic Death in Mice Can Occur Independently of Intestinal Caspase-3 Activation. Infect Immun. 2018 Apr 23. PMID: 29685988.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Rood JI, Adams V, Lacey J, Lyras D, McClane BA, Melville SB, Moore RJ, Popoff MR, Sarker MR, Songer JG, Uzal FA, Van Immerseel F. Expansion of the Clostridium perfringens toxin-based typing scheme. Anaerobe. 2018 Apr 20. PMID: 29866424.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Corpa JM, Carvallo F, Anderson ML, Nyaoke AC, Moore JD, Uzal FA. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus septicemia in alpacas: three cases and review of the literature. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 Apr 01; 1040638718772071. PMID: 29717639.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Sobhakumari A, Poppenga RH, Pesavento JB, Uzal FA. Pathology of carbon monoxide poisoning in two cats. BMC Vet Res. 2018 Mar 05; 14(1):67. PMID: 29506505.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Theoret JR, Li J, Navarro MA, Garcia JP, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Native or Proteolytically Activated NanI Sialidase Enhances the Binding and Cytotoxic Activity of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and Beta Toxin. Infect Immun. 2018 01; 86(1). PMID: 29038129.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Nyaoke AC, Navarro MA, Beingesser J, Uzal FA. Infectious necrotic hepatitis caused by Clostridium novyi type B in a horse: case report and review of the literature. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 Mar; 30(2):294-299. PMID: 29224513.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Gornatti-Churria CD, Crispo M, Shivaprasad HL, Uzal FA. Gangrenous dermatitis in chickens and turkeys. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018 Mar; 30(2):188-196. PMID: 29145799.
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    15. Uzal FA, Kennedy LA, Maxie G. Special issue on racehorse pathology: In the service of equine and human welfare. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017 07; 29(4):381-382. PMID: 28681689.
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    16. Carvallo FR, Uzal FA, Diab SS, Hill AE, Arthur RM. Retrospective study of fatal pneumonia in racehorses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017 Jul; 29(4):450-456. PMID: 28681687.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Abreu CC, Edwards EE, Edwards JF, Gibbons PM, Leal de Araújo J, Rech RR, Uzal FA. Blackleg in cattle: A case report of fetal infection and a literature review. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017 Sep; 29(5):612-621. PMID: 28599620.
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    18. Gray SN, Spriet M, Garcia TC, Uzal FA, Stover SM. Preexisting lesions associated with complete diaphyseal fractures of the third metacarpal bone in 12 Thoroughbred racehorses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017 Jul; 29(4):437-441. PMID: 28423998.
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    19. Diab SS, Poppenga R, Uzal FA. Sudden death in racehorses: postmortem examination protocol. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017 Jul; 29(4):442-449. PMID: 28114865.
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    20. Diab SS, Stover SM, Carvallo F, Nyaoke AC, Moore J, Hill A, Arthur R, Uzal FA. Diagnostic approach to catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries in racehorses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2017 Jul; 29(4):405-413. PMID: 28065163.
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    21. Li J, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Clostridium perfringens Sialidases: Potential Contributors to Intestinal Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Targets. Toxins (Basel). 2016 11 19; 8(11). PMID: 27869757.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Trott JF, Kim J, Abu Aboud O, Wettersten H, Stewart B, Berryhill G, Uzal F, Hovey RC, Chen CH, Anderson K, Graef A, Sarver AL, Modiano JF, Weiss RH. Inhibiting tryptophan metabolism enhances interferon therapy in kidney cancer. Oncotarget. 2016 10 11; 7(41):66540-66557. PMID: 27572319.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Freedman JC, McClane BA, Uzal FA. New insights into Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin activation and action on the brain during enterotoxemia. Anaerobe. 2016 Oct; 41:27-31. PMID: 27321761.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Shrestha A, Uzal FA, McClane BA. The interaction of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin with receptor claudins. Anaerobe. 2016 Oct; 41:18-26. PMID: 27090847.
      View in: PubMed
    25. França M, Barrios MA, Stabler L, Zavala G, Shivaprasad HL, Lee MD, Villegas AM, Uzal FA. Association of Beta2-Positive Clostridium perfringens Type A With Focal Duodenal Necrosis in Egg-Laying Chickens in the United States. Avian Dis. 2016 Mar; 60(1):43-9. PMID: 26953942.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Reissig EC, Moré G, Massone A, Uzal FA. Sarcocystosis in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Patagonia, Argentina. Parasitol Res. 2016 May; 115(5):1773-8. PMID: 26779923.
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    27. Neto RT, Uzal FA, Hodzic E, Persiani M, Jolissaint S, Alcaraz A, Carvallo FR. Coinfection with Clostridium piliforme and Felid herpesvirus 1 in a kitten. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015 Jul; 27(4):547-51. PMID: 26179103.
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    28. Uzal FA, Diab SS. Gastritis, Enteritis, and Colitis in Horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2015 Aug; 31(2):337-58. PMID: 26048413.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Uzal FA, McClane BA, Cheung JK, Theoret J, Garcia JP, Moore RJ, Rood JI. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections. Vet Microbiol. 2015 Aug 31; 179(1-2):23-33. PMID: 25770894.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Theoret JR, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Identification and characterization of Clostridium perfringens beta toxin variants with differing trypsin sensitivity and in vitro cytotoxicity activity. Infect Immun. 2015 Apr; 83(4):1477-86. PMID: 25643999; PMCID: PMC4363432.
    31. Marin RE, Houston R, Omanska-Klusek A, Alcaraz A, Garcia JP, Uzal FA. Pathology and diagnosis of proliferative and ulcerative dermatitis associated with Tunga penetrans infestation in cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015 Jan; 27(1):80-5. PMID: 25525141.
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    32. Carvallo FR, Poppenga R, Kinde H, Diab SS, Nyaoke AC, Hill AE, Arthur RM, Uzal FA. Cluster of cases of massive hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant detection in race horses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015 Jan; 27(1):112-6. PMID: 25525145.
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    33. Loukopoulos P, Okuni JB, Micco T, Garcia JP, Uzal FA, Diab SS. Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec; 45(4):961-5. PMID: 25632693.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Adams V, Li J, Wisniewski JA, Uzal FA, Moore RJ, McClane BA, Rood JI. Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria. Microbiol Spectr. 2014 Dec; 2(6). PMID: 26104459.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Loukopoulos P, Bautista AC, Puschner B, Murphy B, Crossley BM, Holser I, Gomes L, Shivaprasad HL, Uzal FA. An outbreak of thyroid hyperplasia (goiter) with high mortality in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015 Jan; 27(1):18-24. PMID: 25428186.
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    36. Freedman JC, Li J, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Proteolytic processing and activation of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by caprine small intestinal contents. MBio. 2014 Oct 21; 5(5):e01994-14. PMID: 25336460; PMCID: PMC4212841.
    37. Freedman JC, Theoret JR, Wisniewski JA, Uzal FA, Rood JI, McClane BA. Clostridium perfringens type A-E toxin plasmids. Res Microbiol. 2015 May; 166(4):264-79. PMID: 25283728; PMCID: PMC4383721.
    38. Sully EK, Whaley K, Bohorova N, Bohorov O, Goodman C, Kim D, Pauly M, Velasco J, Holtsberg FW, Stavale E, Aman MJ, Tangudu C, Uzal FA, Mantis NJ, Zeitlin L. A tripartite cocktail of chimeric monoclonal antibodies passively protects mice against ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B and Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. Toxicon. 2014 Dec 15; 92:36-41. PMID: 25260254; PMCID: PMC4248019.
    39. Garcia JP, Moore J, Loukopoulos P, Diab SS, Uzal FA. Necrotizing gastritis associated with Clostridium septicum in a rabbit. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014 Sep; 26(5):669-73. PMID: 25164682.
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    40. Shrestha A, Robertson SL, Garcia J, Beingasser J, McClane BA, Uzal FA. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the extracellular loop 2 region of claudin-4 protects against Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in vitro and in vivo. Infect Immun. 2014 Nov; 82(11):4778-88. PMID: 25156725; PMCID: PMC4249305.
    41. Ma M, Gurjar A, Theoret JR, Garcia JP, Beingesser J, Freedman JC, Fisher DJ, McClane BA, Uzal FA. Synergistic effects of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and beta toxin in rabbit small intestinal loops. Infect Immun. 2014 Jul; 82(7):2958-70. PMID: 24778117; PMCID: PMC4097624.
    42. Garcia JP, Li J, Shrestha A, Freedman JC, Beingesser J, McClane BA, Uzal FA. Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin damages the rabbit colon. Infect Immun. 2014 Jun; 82(6):2211-8. PMID: 24643537; PMCID: PMC4019184.
    43. Mukai M, Woods LW, Stump S, Ebel JG, Levitt AS, Frey MW, Smith J, Uzal FA, Poppenga RH, Puschner B. Detection of diisocyanates in nesting material associated with mortality in pigeon chicks. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014 Mar; 26(2):327-33. PMID: 24567542.
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    44. Giannitti F, Barr BC, Brito BP, Uzal FA, Villanueva M, Anderson M. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections in goats and other animals diagnosed at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System: 1990-2012. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014 Jan; 26(1):88-95. PMID: 24442485.
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    45. Uzal FA, Freedman JC, Shrestha A, Theoret JR, Garcia J, Awad MM, Adams V, Moore RJ, Rood JI, McClane BA. Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease. Future Microbiol. 2014; 9(3):361-77. PMID: 24762309; PMCID: PMC4155746.
    46. Adaska JM, Aly SS, Moeller RB, Blanchard PC, Anderson M, Kinde H, Uzal F. Jejunal hematoma in cattle: a retrospective case analysis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014 Jan; 26(1):96-103. PMID: 24532694.
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    47. Diab S, Johnson SM, Garcia J, Carlson EL, Pappagianis D, Smith J, Uzal FA. Case report: Abortion and disseminated infection by Coccidioides posadasii in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus in Southern California. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2013 Oct 31; 2:159-62. PMID: 24432245; PMCID: PMC3885961.
    48. Chen J, Ma M, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Host cell-induced signaling causes Clostridium perfringens to upregulate production of toxins important for intestinal infections. Gut Microbes. 2014 Jan-Feb; 5(1):96-107. PMID: 24061146; PMCID: PMC4049945.
    49. Li J, Adams V, Bannam TL, Miyamoto K, Garcia JP, Uzal FA, Rood JI, McClane BA. Toxin plasmids of Clostridium perfringens. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2013 Jun; 77(2):208-33. PMID: 23699255; PMCID: PMC3668675.
    50. Garcia JP, Anderson M, Blanchard P, Mete A, Uzal FA. The pathology of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type C in calves. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013 May; 25(3):438-42. PMID: 23592750.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Cooper KK, Songer JG, Uzal FA. Diagnosing clostridial enteric disease in poultry. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013 May; 25(3):314-27. PMID: 23572451.
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    52. Chang Reissig E, Valli VE, Pesavento P, Massone AR, Iovanitti B, Gimeno EJ, Uzal FA. Extranodal follicular lymphoma in the lung of a free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013 Jan; 25(1):158-61. PMID: 23242668.
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    53. Sarrafian TL, Case JT, Kinde H, Daft BM, Read DH, Moore JD, Uzal FA, Stover SM. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries of Quarter Horse racehorses: 314 cases (1990-2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012 Oct 01; 241(7):935-42. PMID: 23013508.
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    54. Diab SS, Uzal FA, Giannitti F, Shivaprasad HL. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis outbreak in an urban outdoor aviary of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) in southern California. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012 Sep; 24(5):994-9. PMID: 22855379.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Uzal FA, McClane BA. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens infections. Microbes Infect. 2012 Oct; 14(12):1009-16. PMID: 22713745; PMCID: PMC3572749.
    56. Uzal FA, Mukai M, Woods L, Poppenga R, Valentine BA, Smith J. Acute respiratory distress in an alpaca. Vet Pathol. 2012 Nov; 49(6):1070-3. PMID: 22677877.
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    57. Martínez J, Montgomery DL, Uzal FA. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012 May; 24(3):612-7. PMID: 22529137.
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    58. Ostrowski SR, Kubiski SV, Palmero J, Reilly CM, Higgins JK, Cook-Cronin S, Tawde SN, Crossley BM, Yant P, Cazarez R, Uzal FA. An outbreak of equine botulism type A associated with feeding grass clippings. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012 May; 24(3):601-3. PMID: 22529134.
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    59. Macias Rioseco M, Beingesser J, Uzal FA. Freezing or adding trypsin inhibitor to equine intestinal contents extends the lifespan of Clostridium perfringens beta toxin for diagnostic purposes. Anaerobe. 2012 Jun; 18(3):357-60. PMID: 22516562.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Uzal FA. Evidence-based medicine concerning efficacy of vaccination against Clostridium chauvoei infection in cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2012 Mar; 28(1):71-7, viii. PMID: 22374118.
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    61. Vidal JE, Ma M, Saputo J, Garcia J, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Evidence that the Agr-like quorum sensing system regulates the toxin production, cytotoxicity and pathogenicity of Clostridium perfringens type C isolate CN3685. Mol Microbiol. 2012 Jan; 83(1):179-94. PMID: 22150719; PMCID: PMC3285497.
    62. Uzal FA, Diab SS, Blanchard P, Moore J, Anthenill L, Shahriar F, Garcia JP, Songer JG. Clostridium perfringens type C and Clostridium difficile co-infection in foals. Vet Microbiol. 2012 May 04; 156(3-4):395-402. PMID: 22177970.
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    63. Giannitti F, Diab SS, Uzal FA, Fresneda K, Rossi D, Talmi-Frank D, Baneth G. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus. Vet Parasitol. 2012 May 25; 186(3-4):497-502. PMID: 22112977.
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    64. Robertson SL, Li J, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Evidence for a prepore stage in the action of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e22053. PMID: 21814565; PMCID: PMC3140917.
    65. Caserta JA, Robertson SL, Saputo J, Shrestha A, McClane BA, Uzal FA. Development and application of a mouse intestinal loop model to study the in vivo action of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Infect Immun. 2011 Aug; 79(8):3020-7. PMID: 21628512; PMCID: PMC3147562.
    66. Schild AL, Fiss L, Damé MC, Uzal FA, Soares MP, Schuch LF, Flores EF, Riet-Correa F. Congenital hydranencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia in water buffalo in southern Brazil. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011 May; 23(3):603-9. PMID: 21908300.
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    67. Uzal FA, McClane BA. Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens type C infections. Vet Microbiol. 2011 Nov 21; 153(1-2):37-43. PMID: 21420802; PMCID: PMC3151542.
    68. Ma M, Vidal J, Saputo J, McClane BA, Uzal F. The VirS/VirR two-component system regulates the anaerobic cytotoxicity, intestinal pathogenicity, and enterotoxemic lethality of Clostridium perfringens type C isolate CN3685. MBio. 2011 Jan 25; 2(1):e00338-10. PMID: 21264065; PMCID: PMC3025664.
    69. Oliveira DM, Pimentel LA, Pessoa AF, Dantas AF, Uzal F, Riet-Correa F. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in a goat. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010 Sep; 22(5):793-6. PMID: 20807946.
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    70. Odani JS, Blanchard PC, Adaska JM, Moeller RB, Uzal FA. Malignant edema in postpartum dairy cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009 Nov; 21(6):920-4. PMID: 19901305.
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    71. Uzal FA, Saputo J, Sayeed S, Vidal JE, Fisher DJ, Poon R, Adams V, Fernandez-Miyakawa ME, Rood JI, McClane BA. Development and application of new mouse models to study the pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens type C Enterotoxemias. Infect Immun. 2009 Dec; 77(12):5291-9. PMID: 19805537; PMCID: PMC2786445.
    72. Goldstein J, Morris WE, Loidl CF, Tironi-Farinati C, Tironi-Farinatti C, McClane BA, Uzal FA, Fernandez Miyakawa ME. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin increases the small intestinal permeability in mice and rats. PLoS One. 2009 Sep 18; 4(9):e7065. PMID: 19763257; PMCID: PMC2739291.
    73. Hirschberg H, Zhang MJ, Gach HM, Uzal FA, Peng Q, Sun CH, Chighvinadze D, Madsen SJ. Targeted delivery of bleomycin to the brain using photo-chemical internalization of Clostridium perfringens epsilon prototoxin. J Neurooncol. 2009 Dec; 95(3):317-329. PMID: 19506813; PMCID: PMC2773371.
    74. Shivaprasad HL, Uzal F, Kokka R, Fisher DJ, McClane BA, Songer AG. Ulcerative enteritis-like disease associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Avian Dis. 2008 Dec; 52(4):635-40. PMID: 19166055.
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    75. Uzal FA, Fisher DJ, Saputo J, Sayeed S, McClane BA, Songer G, Trinh HT, Fernandez Miyakawa ME, Gard S. Ulcerative enterocolitis in two goats associated with enterotoxin- and beta2 toxin-positive Clostridium perfringens type D. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008 Sep; 20(5):668-72. PMID: 18776108.
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    76. Vidal JE, McClane BA, Saputo J, Parker J, Uzal FA. Effects of Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin on the rabbit small intestine and colon. Infect Immun. 2008 Oct; 76(10):4396-404. PMID: 18625730; PMCID: PMC2546809.
    77. Smedley JG, Saputo J, Parker JC, Fernandez-Miyakawa ME, Robertson SL, McClane BA, Uzal FA. Noncytotoxic Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) variants localize CPE intestinal binding and demonstrate a relationship between CPE-induced cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity. Infect Immun. 2008 Aug; 76(8):3793-800. PMID: 18505809; PMCID: PMC2493238.
    78. Uzal FA, Songer JG. Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008 May; 20(3):253-65. PMID: 18460610.
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    79. Uzal FA, Puschner B. Cervical leiomyoma in an aged goat leading to massive hemorrhage and death. Can Vet J. 2008 Feb; 49(2):177-9. PMID: 18309748; PMCID: PMC2216438.
    80. Sayeed S, Uzal FA, Fisher DJ, Saputo J, Vidal JE, Chen Y, Gupta P, Rood JI, McClane BA. Beta toxin is essential for the intestinal virulence of Clostridium perfringens type C disease isolate CN3685 in a rabbit ileal loop model. Mol Microbiol. 2008 Jan; 67(1):15-30. PMID: 18078439.
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    81. Miyakawa ME, Saputo J, Leger JS, Puschner B, Fisher DJ, McClane BA, Uzal FA. Necrotizing enterocolitis and death in a goat kid associated with enterotoxin (CPE)-producing Clostridium perfringens type A. Can Vet J. 2007 Dec; 48(12):1266-9. PMID: 18189049; PMCID: PMC2081994.
    82. Fernandez-Miyakawa ME, Jost BH, Billington SJ, Uzal FA. Lethal effects of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin are potentiated by alpha and perfringolysin-O toxins in a mouse model. Vet Microbiol. 2008 Mar 18; 127(3-4):379-85. PMID: 17997054; PMCID: PMC2276457.
    83. Uzal FA, Paulson D, Eigenheer AL, Walker RL. Malassezia slooffiae-associated dermatitis in a goat. Vet Dermatol. 2007 Oct; 18(5):348-52. PMID: 17845623.
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    84. Hughes ML, Poon R, Adams V, Sayeed S, Saputo J, Uzal FA, McClane BA, Rood JI. Epsilon-toxin plasmids of Clostridium perfringens type D are conjugative. J Bacteriol. 2007 Nov; 189(21):7531-8. PMID: 17720791; PMCID: PMC2168747.
    85. Fernandez-Miyakawa ME, Sayeed S, Fisher DJ, Poon R, Adams V, Rood JI, McClane BA, Saputo J, Uzal FA. Development and application of an oral challenge mouse model for studying Clostridium perfringens type D infection. Infect Immun. 2007 Sep; 75(9):4282-8. PMID: 17562765; PMCID: PMC1951146.
    86. Crespo R, Fisher DJ, Shivaprasad HL, Fernández-Miyakawa ME, Uzal FA. Toxinotypes of Clostridium perfringens isolated from sick and healthy avian species. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007 May; 19(3):329-33. PMID: 17459870.
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    87. Uzal FA, Houston RS, Riley SP, Poppenga R, Odani J, Boyce W. Notoedric mange in two free-ranging mountain lions (Puma concolor). J Wildl Dis. 2007 Apr; 43(2):274-8. PMID: 17495313.
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    88. Fernandez-Miyakawa ME, Marcellino R, Uzal FA. Clostridium perfringens type A toxin production in 3 commonly used culture media. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007 Mar; 19(2):184-6. PMID: 17402614.
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    89. Smedley JG, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Identification of a prepore large-complex stage in the mechanism of action of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Infect Immun. 2007 May; 75(5):2381-90. PMID: 17307943; PMCID: PMC1865780.
    90. Fernandez-Miyakawa ME, Fisher DJ, Poon R, Sayeed S, Adams V, Rood JI, McClane BA, Uzal FA. Both epsilon-toxin and beta-toxin are important for the lethal properties of Clostridium perfringens type B isolates in the mouse intravenous injection model. Infect Immun. 2007 Mar; 75(3):1443-52. PMID: 17210666; PMCID: PMC1828578.
    91. Fisher DJ, Fernandez-Miyakawa ME, Sayeed S, Poon R, Adams V, Rood JI, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Dissecting the contributions of Clostridium perfringens type C toxins to lethality in the mouse intravenous injection model. Infect Immun. 2006 Sep; 74(9):5200-10. PMID: 16926413; PMCID: PMC1594841.
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    93. Anthenill LA, Stover SM, Gardner IA, Hill AE, Lee CM, Anderson ML, Barr BC, Read DH, Johnson BJ, Woods LW, Daft BM, Kinde H, Moore JD, Farman CA, Odani JS, Pesavento PA, Uzal FA, Case JT, Ardans AA. Association between findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images and detection of a fracture in the proximal sesamoid bones of forelimbs obtained from cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Am J Vet Res. 2006 May; 67(5):858-68. PMID: 16649922.
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    94. Uzal FA, Puschner B, Tahara JM, Nordhausen RW. Gossypol toxicosis in a dog consequent to ingestion of cottonseed bedding. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005 Nov; 17(6):626-9. PMID: 16475530.
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    95. Daft BM, Visvesvara GS, Read DH, Kinde H, Uzal FA, Manzer MD. Seasonal meningoencephalitis in Holstein cattle caused by Naegleria fowleri. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005 Nov; 17(6):605-9. PMID: 16475525.
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    96. Sayeed S, Fernandez-Miyakawa ME, Fisher DJ, Adams V, Poon R, Rood JI, Uzal FA, McClane BA. Epsilon-toxin is required for most Clostridium perfringens type D vegetative culture supernatants to cause lethality in the mouse intravenous injection model. Infect Immun. 2005 Nov; 73(11):7413-21. PMID: 16239541; PMCID: PMC1273886.
    97. Songer JG, Uzal FA. Clostridial enteric infections in pigs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005 Nov; 17(6):528-36. PMID: 16475510.
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    98. Costa AT, Lobato FC, Abreu VL, Assis RA, Reis R, Uzal FA. Serotyping and evaluation of the virulence in mice of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2005 Mar-Apr; 47(2):113-5. PMID: 15880226.
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    99. Bos J, Smithee L, McClane B, Distefano RF, Uzal F, Songer JG, Mallonee S, Crutcher JM. Fatal necrotizing colitis following a foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 May 15; 40(10):e78-83. PMID: 15844055.
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    100. Fernández Miyakawa ME, Uzal FA. Morphologic and physiologic changes induced by Clostridium perfringens type A alpha toxin in the intestine of sheep. Am J Vet Res. 2005 Feb; 66(2):251-5. PMID: 15757123.
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    101. Uzal FA, Woods L, Stillian M, Nordhausen R, Read DH, Van Kampen H, Odani J, Hietala S, Hurley EJ, Vickers ML, Gard SM. Abortion and ulcerative posthitis associated with caprine herpesvirus-1 infection in goats in California. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004 Sep; 16(5):478-84. PMID: 15460339.
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    102. Uzal FA. Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats. Anaerobe. 2004 Apr; 10(2):135-43. PMID: 16701510.
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    103. Uzal FA, Hugenholtz P, Blackall LL, Petray S, Moss S, Assis RA, Fernandez Miyakawa M, Carloni G. PCR detection of Clostridium chauvoei in pure cultures and in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Vet Microbiol. 2003 Feb 02; 91(2-3):239-48. PMID: 12458172.
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    104. Kinde H, Read DH, Daft BM, Hammarlund M, Moore J, Uzal F, Mukai J, Woolcock P. The occurrence of avian influenza A subtype H6N2 in commercial layer flocks in Southern California (2000-02): clinicopathologic findings. Avian Dis. 2003; 47(3 Suppl):1214-8. PMID: 14575145.
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    105. Uzal FA, Dobrenov B, Smythe L, Norris M, Dohnt M, Symonds M, O'Boyle D, Schouten F, Kelly WR. A study of "white spotted kidneys" in cattle. Vet Microbiol. 2002 May 24; 86(4):369-75. PMID: 11955787.
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