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Ian Gardner

TitlePROF EMERITUS(WOS)
InstitutionUniversity of California Davis
DepartmentVM: MEDICINE & EPIDEMIOLOGY
AddressONE SHIELDS AVE.
CA 95616
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Kostoulas P, Nielsen SS, Branscum AJ, Johnson WO, Dendukuri N, Dhand NK, Toft N, Gardner I. Reporting guidelines for diagnostic accuracy studies that use Bayesian latent class models (STARD-BLCM). Stat Med. 2017 Oct 15; 36(23):3603-3604. PMID: 28675923.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Jaramillo D, Peeler EJ, Laurin E, Gardner I, Whittington RJ. Serology in Finfish for Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Research: A Systematic Review. J Aquat Anim Health. 2017 Mar; 29(1):1-14. PMID: 28166451.
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    3. Kostoulas P, Nielsen SS, Branscum AJ, Johnson WO, Dendukuri N, Dhand NK, Toft N, Gardner I. STARD-BLCM: Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies that use Bayesian Latent Class Models. Prev Vet Med. 2017 Mar 01; 138:37-47. PMID: 28237234.
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    4. Gardner I, Whittington RJ, Caraguel CG, Hick P, Moody NJ, Corbeil S, Garver KA, Warg JV, Arzul I, Purcell MK, Crane MS, Waltzek TB, Olesen NJ, Gallardo Lagno A. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist. Dis Aquat Organ. 2016 Feb 25; 118(2):91-111. PMID: 26912041.
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    5. Jafarzadeh SR, Johnson WO, Gardner I. Bayesian modeling and inference for diagnostic accuracy and probability of disease based on multiple diagnostic biomarkers with and without a perfect reference standard. Stat Med. 2016 Mar 15; 35(6):859-76. PMID: 26415924.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Aly SS, Gardner I, Adaska JM, Anderson RJ. Off-site rearing of heifers reduces the risk of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis ELISA seroconversion and fecal shedding in a California dairy herd. J Dairy Sci. 2015 Mar; 98(3):1805-14. PMID: 25597977.
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    7. Gardner I, Burnley T, Caraguel C. Improvements are needed in reporting of accuracy studies for diagnostic tests used for detection of finfish pathogens. J Aquat Anim Health. 2014 Dec; 26(4):203-9. PMID: 25252270.
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    8. Mayo CE, Mullens BA, Reisen WK, Osborne CJ, Gibbs EP, Gardner I, MacLachlan NJ. Seasonal and interseasonal dynamics of bluetongue virus infection of dairy cattle and Culicoides sonorensis midges in northern California--implications for virus overwintering in temperate zones. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106975. PMID: 25215598; PMCID: PMC4162562.
    9. Knuuttila A, Aronen P, Eerola M, Gardner I, Virtala AM, Vapalahti O. Validation of an automated ELISA system for detection of antibodies to Aleutian mink disease virus using blood samples collected in filter paper strips. Virol J. 2014 Aug 08; 11:141. PMID: 25103400; PMCID: PMC4254392.
    10. Brito BP, Aly SS, Anderson RJ, Fossler CP, Garry FB, Gardner I. Association between caudal fold tuberculin test responses and results of an ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and mycobacterial culture of feces in tuberculosis-free dairy herds. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2014 Mar 01; 244(5):582-7. PMID: 24548233.
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    11. Mayo CE, Osborne CJ, Mullens BA, Gerry AC, Gardner I, Reisen WK, Barker CM, Maclachlan NJ. Seasonal variation and impact of waste-water lagoons as larval habitat on the population dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae) at two dairy farms in northern California. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89633. PMID: 24586925; PMCID: PMC3931813.
    12. Meagher DM, Bromberek JL, Meagher DT, Gardner I, Puchalski SM, Stover SM. Prevalence of abnormal radiographic findings in 2-year-old Thoroughbreds at in-training sales and associations with racing performance. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013 Apr 01; 242(7):969-76. PMID: 23517210.
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    13. Guthrie AJ, Maclachlan NJ, Joone C, Lourens CW, Weyer CT, Quan M, Monyai MS, Gardner I. Diagnostic accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness virus. J Virol Methods. 2013 Apr; 189(1):30-5. PMID: 23291102.
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    14. Arens AM, Puchalski SM, Whitcomb MB, Bell R, Gardner I, Stover SM. Comparison of the use of scapular ultrasonography, physical examination, and measurement of serum biomarkers of bone turnover versus scintigraphy for detection of bone fragility syndrome in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013 Jan 01; 242(1):76-85. PMID: 23234285.
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    15. Jeske JM, Spier SJ, Whitcomb MB, Pusterla N, Gardner I. Use of antibody titers measured via serum synergistic hemolysis inhibition testing to predict internal Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013 Jan 01; 242(1):86-92. PMID: 23234286.
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    16. Gaffney PM, Kennedy M, Terio K, Gardner I, Lothamer C, Coleman K, Munson L. Detection of feline coronavirus in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) feces by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction in cheetahs with variable frequency of viral shedding. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012 Dec; 43(4):776-86. PMID: 23272344.
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    17. Koop G, Collar CA, Toft N, Nielen M, van Werven T, Bacon D, Gardner I. Risk factors for subclinical intramammary infection in dairy goats in two longitudinal field studies evaluated by Bayesian logistic regression. Prev Vet Med. 2013 Mar 01; 108(4):304-12. PMID: 23182030.
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    18. Aly SS, Anderson RJ, Whitlock RH, Fyock TL, McAdams SC, Byrem TM, Jiang J, Adaska JM, Gardner I. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies to identify Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis super-shedder cows in a large dairy herd using antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and bacterial culture. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012 Sep; 24(5):821-32. PMID: 22807510.
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    19. Tavornpanich S, Wells SJ, Fossler CP, Roussel AJ, Gardner I. Evaluation of an alternative method of herd classification for infection with paratuberculosis in cattle herds in the United States. Am J Vet Res. 2012 Feb; 73(2):248-56. PMID: 22280386.
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    20. Mayo CE, Mullens BA, Gerry AC, Barker CM, Mertens PP, Maan S, Maan N, Gardner I, Guthrie AJ, MacLachlan NJ. The combination of abundance and infection rates of Culicoides sonorensis estimates risk of subsequent bluetongue virus infection of sentinel cattle on California dairy farms. Vet Parasitol. 2012 Jun 08; 187(1-2):295-301. PMID: 22281150.
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    21. Morton JM, McCoy RJ, Kann RK, Gardner I, Meers J. Validation of real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnosing feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domestic cats using Bayesian latent class models. Prev Vet Med. 2012 Apr 01; 104(1-2):136-48. PMID: 22098681.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Mayo CE, Gardner I, Mullens BA, Barker CM, Gerry AC, Guthrie AJ, MacLachlan NJ. Anthropogenic and meteorological factors influence vector abundance and prevalence of bluetongue virus infection of dairy cattle in California. Vet Microbiol. 2012 Mar 23; 155(2-4):158-64. PMID: 21930352.
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    23. Glavis J, Larsen RS, Lamberski N, Gaffney P, Gardner I. Evaluation of antibody response to vaccination against West Nile virus in thick billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011 Sep; 42(3):495-8. PMID: 22950325.
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    24. Brito BP, Gardner I, Hietala SK, Crossley BM. Variation in Bluetongue virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay results in blood samples of sheep, cattle, and alpaca. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011 Jul; 23(4):753-6. PMID: 21908318.
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    25. Gardner I, Nielsen SS, Whittington RJ, Collins MT, Bakker D, Harris B, Sreevatsan S, Lombard JE, Sweeney R, Smith DR, Gavalchin J, Eda S. Consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis in ruminants. Prev Vet Med. 2011 Aug 01; 101(1-2):18-34. PMID: 21601933.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Gardner I. Quality standards are needed for reporting of test accuracy studies for animal diseases. Prev Vet Med. 2010 Dec 01; 97(3-4):136-43. PMID: 20950876.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Jafarzadeh SR, Johnson WO, Utts JM, Gardner I. Bayesian estimation of the receiver operating characteristic curve for a diagnostic test with a limit of detection in the absence of a gold standard. Stat Med. 2010 Sep 10; 29(20):2090-106. PMID: 20603894.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Aly SS, Mangold BL, Whitlock RH, Sweeney RW, Anderson RJ, Jiang J, Schukken YH, Hovingh E, Wolfgang D, Van Kessel JA, Karns JS, Lombard JE, Smith JM, Gardner I. Correlation between Herrold egg yolk medium culture and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in pooled fecal and environmental samples. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010 Sep; 22(5):677-83. PMID: 20807920.
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    29. Schumaker BA, Corso BA, Rhyan JC, Philo LM, Salman MD, Gardner I. Evaluation of the fluorescence polarization assay for the detection of Brucella abortus antibodies in bison in a natural setting. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Dec; 33(6):e119-25. PMID: 20727591.
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    30. Anthenill LA, Gardner I, Pool RR, Garcia TC, Stover SM. Comparison of macrostructural and microstructural bone features in Thoroughbred racehorses with and without midbody fracture of the proximal sesamoid bone. Am J Vet Res. 2010 Jul; 71(7):755-65. PMID: 20594077.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Brault SA, Blanchard MT, Gardner I, Stott JL, Pusterla N, Mapes SM, Vernau W, Dejong KD, Maclachlan NJ. The immune response of foals to natural infection with equid herpesvirus-2 and its association with febrile illness. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010 Sep 15; 137(1-2):136-41. PMID: 20646766.
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    32. Drew CP, Gardner I, Mayo CE, Matsuo E, Roy P, MacLachlan NJ. Bluetongue virus infection alters the impedance of monolayers of bovine endothelial cells as a result of cell death. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010 Jul; 136(1-2):108-15. PMID: 20359753; PMCID: PMC2891053.
    33. Messam LL, O'Brien JM, Hietala SK, Gardner I. Effect of changes in testing parameters on the cost-effectiveness of two pooled test methods to classify infection status of animals in a herd. Prev Vet Med. 2010 May 01; 94(3-4):202-12. PMID: 20207038.
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    34. Gardner I. Special section: Schwabe Symposium 2008. Preface. Prev Vet Med. 2009 Dec 01; 92(4):267. PMID: 19811844.
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    35. Gardner I, Greiner M, Dubey JP. Statistical evaluation of test accuracy studies for Toxoplasma gondii in food animal intermediate hosts. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010 Feb; 57(1):82-94. PMID: 19744298.
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    36. Johnson WO, Gardner I, Metoyer CN, Branscum AJ. On the interpretation of test sensitivity in the two-test two-population problem: assumptions matter. Prev Vet Med. 2009 Oct 01; 91(2-4):116-21. PMID: 19651450.
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    37. Guthrie AJ, Quan M, Lourens CW, Audonnet JC, Minke JM, Yao J, He L, Nordgren R, Gardner I, Maclachlan NJ. Protective immunization of horses with a recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the outer capsid proteins of African horse sickness virus. Vaccine. 2009 Jul 16; 27(33):4434-8. PMID: 19490959.
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    38. Black DM, Gilardi KV, Hamilton LP, Williams E, Williams DF, Kelly PA, Gardner I. Hematologic and biochemistry reference values for the endangered riparian brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius). J Wildl Dis. 2009 Apr; 45(2):491-6. PMID: 19395758.
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    39. Kostoulas P, Leontides L, Browne WJ, Gardner I. Bayesian estimation of variance partition coefficients adjusted for imperfect test sensitivity and specificity. Prev Vet Med. 2009 Jun 01; 89(3-4):155-62. PMID: 19297045.
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    40. Ruzante JM, Gardner I, Cullor JS, Smith WL, Kirk JH, Adaska JM. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from waste milk delivered to California calf ranches. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008 Oct; 5(5):681-6. PMID: 18681799.
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    41. Tavornpanich S, Johnson WO, Anderson RJ, Gardner I. Herd characteristics and management practices associated with seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds. Am J Vet Res. 2008 Jul; 69(7):904-11. PMID: 18593244.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Branscum AJ, Johnson WO, Hanson TE, Gardner I. Bayesian semiparametric ROC curve estimation and disease diagnosis. Stat Med. 2008 Jun 15; 27(13):2474-96. PMID: 18300333.
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    43. Dabritz HA, Miller MA, Gardner I, Packham AE, Atwill ER, Conrad PA. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild rodents from central coastal California and a review of T. gondii prevalence in rodents. J Parasitol. 2008 Jun; 94(3):675-83. PMID: 18605783.
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    44. McV Messam LL, Branscum AJ, Collins MT, Gardner I. Frequentist and Bayesian approaches to prevalence estimation using examples from Johne's disease. Anim Health Res Rev. 2008 Jun; 9(1):1-23. PMID: 18346298.
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    45. Dabritz HA, Miller MA, Packham AE, Rejmanek D, Leutenegger CM, Gardner I, Atwill ER, Patricia A C. Experimental infection of Peromyscus californicus with Toxoplasma gondii. J Parasitol. 2007 Dec; 93(6):1360-4. PMID: 18314680.
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    46. Dabritz HA, Miller MA, Atwill ER, Gardner I, Leutenegger CM, Melli AC, Conrad PA. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007 Dec 01; 231(11):1676-84. PMID: 18052801.
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    47. Tavornpanich S, Muñoz-Zanzi CA, Wells SJ, Raizman EA, Carpenter TE, Johnson WO, Gardner I. Simulation model for evaluation of testing strategies for detection of paratuberculosis in midwestern US dairy herds. Prev Vet Med. 2008 Jan 01; 83(1):65-82. PMID: 17719108.
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    48. Wainwright KE, Miller MA, Barr BC, Gardner I, Melli AC, Essert T, Packham AE, Truong T, Lagunas-Solar M, Conrad PA. Chemical inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water. J Parasitol. 2007 Aug; 93(4):925-31. PMID: 17918377.
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    49. Dabritz HA, Gardner I, Miller MA, Lappin MR, Atwill ER, Packham AE, Melli AC, Conrad PA. Evaluation of two Toxoplasma gondii serologic tests used in a serosurvey of domestic cats in California. J Parasitol. 2007 Aug; 93(4):806-16. PMID: 17918359.
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    50. Wainwright KE, Lagunas-Solar M, Miller MA, Barr BC, Gardner I, Pina C, Melli AC, Packham AE, Zeng N, Truong T, Conrad PA. Physical inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Sep; 73(17):5663-6. PMID: 17616618; PMCID: PMC2042101.
    51. Norris JW, Pratt SM, Hunter JF, Gardner I, Tablin F. Prevalence of reduced fibrinogen binding to platelets in a population of Thoroughbreds. Am J Vet Res. 2007 Jul; 68(7):716-21. PMID: 17605606.
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    52. Anthenill LA, Stover SM, Gardner I, Hill AE. Risk factors for proximal sesamoid bone fractures associated with exercise history and horseshoe characteristics in Thoroughbred racehorses. Am J Vet Res. 2007 Jul; 68(7):760-71. PMID: 17605612.
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    53. Vanasco NB, Lottersberger J, Schmeling MF, Gardner I, Tarabla HD. [Diagnosis of leptospirosis: evaluation of a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in different stages of the disease]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2007 Jun; 21(6):388-95. PMID: 17761051.
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    54. Finno CJ, Packham AE, David Wilson W, Gardner I, Conrad PA, Pusterla N. Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007 May; 19(3):286-9. PMID: 17459859.
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    55. Hines ME, Stabel JR, Sweeney RW, Griffin F, Talaat AM, Bakker D, Benedictus G, Davis WC, de Lisle GW, Gardner I, Juste RA, Kapur V, Koets A, McNair J, Pruitt G, Whitlock RH. Experimental challenge models for Johne's disease: a review and proposed international guidelines. Vet Microbiol. 2007 Jun 21; 122(3-4):197-222. PMID: 17467201.
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    56. Gardner I, Wong SJ, Ferraro GL, Balasuriya UB, Hullinger PJ, Wilson WD, Shi PY, MacLachlan NJ. Incidence and effects of West Nile virus infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in California. Vet Res. 2007 Jan-Feb; 38(1):109-16. PMID: 17274156.
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    57. Collins MT, Gardner I, Garry FB, Roussel AJ, Wells SJ. Consensus recommendations on diagnostic testing for the detection of paratuberculosis in cattle in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Dec 15; 229(12):1912-9. PMID: 17173528.
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    58. Hines ME, Stiver S, Giri D, Whittington L, Watson C, Johnson J, Musgrove J, Pence M, Hurley D, Baldwin C, Gardner I, Aly S. Efficacy of spheroplastic and cell-wall competent vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in experimentally-challenged baby goats. Vet Microbiol. 2007 Mar 10; 120(3-4):261-83. PMID: 17123751.
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    59. Boone JD, Balasuriya UB, Karaca K, Audonnet JC, Yao J, He L, Nordgren R, Monaco F, Savini G, Gardner I, Maclachlan NJ. Recombinant canarypox virus vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the VP2 and VP5 outer capsid proteins of bluetongue virus induces high level protection in sheep. Vaccine. 2007 Jan 08; 25(4):672-8. PMID: 17059856.
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    60. Branscum AJ, Johnson WO, Gardner I. Sample size calculations for disease freedom and prevalence estimation surveys. Stat Med. 2006 Aug 15; 25(15):2658-74. PMID: 16287201.
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    61. Dabritz HA, Atwill ER, Gardner I, Miller MA, Conrad PA. Outdoor fecal deposition by free-roaming cats and attitudes of cat owners and nonowners toward stray pets, wildlife, and water pollution. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Jul 01; 229(1):74-81. PMID: 16817717.
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    62. Balasuriya UB, Shi PY, Wong SJ, Demarest VL, Gardner I, Hullinger PJ, Ferraro GL, Boone JD, De Cino CL, Glaser AL, Renshaw RW, Ledizet M, Koski RA, MacLachlan NJ. Detection of antibodies to West Nile virus in equine sera using microsphere immunoassay. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006 Jul; 18(4):392-5. PMID: 16921881.
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    63. Bell SA, Balasuriya UB, Gardner I, Barry PA, Wilson WD, Ferraro GL, MacLachlan NJ. Temporal detection of equine herpesvirus infections of a cohort of mares and their foals. Vet Microbiol. 2006 Sep 10; 116(4):249-57. PMID: 16774810.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Duarte PC, Ebel ED, Traub-Dargatz J, Wilson WD, Conrad PA, Gardner I. Indirect fluorescent antibody testing of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Am J Vet Res. 2006 May; 67(5):869-76. PMID: 16649923.
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    65. Tavornpanich S, Gardner I, Carpenter TE, Johnson WO, Anderson RJ. Evaluation of cost-effectiveness of targeted sampling methods for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds. Am J Vet Res. 2006 May; 67(5):821-8. PMID: 16649916.
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    66. Anthenill LA, Stover SM, Gardner I, Hill AE, Lee CM, Anderson ML, Barr BC, Read DH, Johnson BJ, Woods LW, Daft BM, Kinde H, Moore JD, Farman CA, Odani JS, Pesavento PA, Uzal FA, Case JT, Ardans AA. Association between findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images and detection of a fracture in the proximal sesamoid bones of forelimbs obtained from cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Am J Vet Res. 2006 May; 67(5):858-68. PMID: 16649922.
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    67. Berghaus RD, Farver TB, Anderson RJ, Adaska JM, Gardner I. Use of age and milk production data to improve the ability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test results to predict Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal culture status. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006 May; 18(3):233-42. PMID: 16789710.
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    68. Robbe-Austerman S, Gardner I, Thomsen BV, Morrical DG, Martin BM, Palmer MV, Thoen CO, Ewing C. Sensitivity and specificity of the agar-gel-immunodiffusion test, ELISA and the skin test for detection of paratuberculosis in United States Midwest sheep populations. Vet Res. 2006 Jul-Aug; 37(4):553-64. PMID: 16641016.
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    69. Gardner I, Greiner M. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios: improvements over traditional methods for the evaluation and application of veterinary clinical pathology tests. Vet Clin Pathol. 2006 Mar; 35(1):8-17. PMID: 16511785.
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    70. Ruzante JM, Smith WL, Gardner I, Thornton CG, Cullor JS. Modified culture protocol for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from raw milk. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2006; 3(4):457-60. PMID: 17199528.
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    71. Johnson S, Lowenstine L, Gulland F, Jang S, Imai D, Almy F, Delong R, Gardner I. Aerobic bacterial flora of the vagina and prepuce of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and investigation of associations with urogenital carcinoma. Vet Microbiol. 2006 Apr 16; 114(1-2):94-103. PMID: 16326045.
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    72. Georgiadis MP, Johnson WO, Gardner I. Sample size determination for estimation of the accuracy of two conditionally independent tests in the absence of a gold standard. Prev Vet Med. 2005 Sep 30; 71(1-2):1-10. PMID: 16076507.
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    73. Miller WA, Gardner I, Atwill ER, Leutenegger CM, Miller MA, Hedrick RP, Melli AC, Barnes NM, Conrad PA. Evaluation of methods for improved detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus). J Microbiol Methods. 2006 Jun; 65(3):367-79. PMID: 16181691.
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    74. Berghaus RD, Lombard JE, Gardner I, Farver TB. Factor analysis of a Johne's disease risk assessment questionnaire with evaluation of factor scores and a subset of original questions as predictors of observed clinical paratuberculosis. Prev Vet Med. 2005 Dec 12; 72(3-4):291-309. PMID: 16139906.
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    75. Crossley BM, Zagmutt-Vergara FJ, Fyock TL, Whitlock RH, Gardner I. Fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by dairy cows. Vet Microbiol. 2005 May 20; 107(3-4):257-63. PMID: 15863285.
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    76. Andrianarivo AG, Anderson ML, Rowe JD, Gardner I, Reynolds JP, Choromanski L, Conrad PA. Immune responses during pregnancy in heifers naturally infected with Neospora caninum with and without immunization. Parasitol Res. 2005 Apr; 96(1):24-31. PMID: 15841416.
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    77. Miller WA, Atwill ER, Gardner I, Miller MA, Fritz HM, Hedrick RP, Melli AC, Barnes NM, Conrad PA. Clams (Corbicula fluminea) as bioindicators of fecal contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in freshwater ecosystems in California. Int J Parasitol. 2005 May; 35(6):673-84. PMID: 15862580.
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    78. Hoar BR, Carpenter TE, Singer RS, Gardner I. Probability of introduction of exotic strains of bluetongue virus into the US and into California through importation of infected cattle. Prev Vet Med. 2004 Dec 15; 66(1-4):79-91. PMID: 15579336.
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    79. Duarte PC, Conrad PA, Barr BC, Wilson WD, Ferraro GL, Packham AE, Carpenter TE, Gardner I. Risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in California horses. J Parasitol. 2004 Dec; 90(6):1345-51. PMID: 15715226.
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    80. Payne MA, Wetzlich SE, Robb EJ, Brown SA, Gardner I, Cullor JS, Craigmill AL. Comparison of the use of regulatory assays and high-performance liquid chromatography for detection of residues of ceftiofur sodium metabolites in tissue specimens of culled dairy cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Dec; 65(12):1730-3. PMID: 15631042.
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    81. Gross DK, Stover SM, Hill AE, Gardner I. Observer variation in visual assessment of forelimb horseshoe characteristics on Thoroughbred racehorses. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Dec; 65(12):1674-9. PMID: 15631032.
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    82. Hill AE, Gardner I, Carpenter TE, Stover SM. Effects of injury to the suspensory apparatus, exercise, and horseshoe characteristics on the risk of lateral condylar fracture and suspensory apparatus failure in forelimbs of thoroughbred racehorses. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Nov; 65(11):1508-17. PMID: 15566089.
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    83. Gardner I. An epidemiologic critique of current microbial risk assessment practices: the importance of prevalence and test accuracy data. J Food Prot. 2004 Sep; 67(9):2000-7. PMID: 15453595.
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    84. Duarte PC, Conrad PA, Wilson WD, Ferraro GL, Packham AE, Bowers-Lepore J, Carpenter TE, Gardner I. Risk of postnatal exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Aug; 65(8):1047-52. PMID: 15334837.
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    85. Tavornpanich S, Gardner I, Anderson RJ, Shin S, Whitlock RH, Fyock T, Adaska JM, Walker RL, Hietala SK. Evaluation of microbial culture of pooled fecal samples for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in large dairy herds. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Aug; 65(8):1061-70. PMID: 15334839.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Su CL, Gardner I, Johnson WO. Diagnostic test accuracy and prevalence inferences based on joint and sequential testing with finite population sampling. Stat Med. 2004 Jul 30; 23(14):2237-55. PMID: 15236428.
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    87. Gross DK, Stover SM, Hill AE, Gardner I. Evaluation of forelimb horseshoe characteristics of thoroughbreds racing on dirt surfaces. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Jul; 65(7):1021-30. PMID: 15281665.
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    88. Kelley GO, Zagmutt-Vergara FJ, Leutenegger CM, Myklebust KA, Adkison MA, McDowell TS, Marty GD, Kahler AL, Bush AL, Gardner I, Hedrick RP. Evaluation of five diagnostic methods for the detection and quantification of Myxobolus cerebralis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004 May; 16(3):202-11. PMID: 15152834.
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    89. Nelson DM, Gardner I, Chiles RF, Balasuriya UB, Eldridge BF, Scott TW, Reisen WK, Maclachlan NJ. Prevalence of antibodies against Saint Louis encephalitis and Jamestown Canyon viruses in California horses. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004 May; 27(3):209-15. PMID: 15001316.
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    90. Hassel DM, Rakestraw PC, Gardner I, Spier SJ, Snyder JR. Dietary risk factors and colonic pH and mineral concentrations in horses with enterolithiasis. J Vet Intern Med. 2004 May-Jun; 18(3):346-9. PMID: 15188822.
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    91. McInturff P, Johnson WO, Cowling D, Gardner I. Modelling risk when binary outcomes are subject to error. Stat Med. 2004 Apr 15; 23(7):1095-109. PMID: 15057880.
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    92. Duarte PC, Daft BM, Conrad PA, Packham AE, Saville WJ, MacKay RJ, Barr BC, Wilson WD, Ng T, Reed SM, Gardner I. Evaluation and comparison of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, using serum and cerebrospinal fluid of naturally and experimentally infected, and vaccinated horses. J Parasitol. 2004 Apr; 90(2):379-86. PMID: 15165063.
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    93. Johnson WO, Su CL, Gardner I, Christensen R. Sample size calculations for surveys to substantiate freedom of populations from infectious agents. Biometrics. 2004 Mar; 60(1):165-71. PMID: 15032786.
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    94. Carpenter TE, Gardner I, Collins MT, Whitlock RH. Effects of prevalence and testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fecal culture on the risk of introduction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cows into dairy herds. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004 Jan; 16(1):31-8. PMID: 14974844.
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    95. Arkush KD, Miller MA, Leutenegger CM, Gardner I, Packham AE, Heckeroth AR, Tenter AM, Barr BC, Conrad PA. Molecular and bioassay-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst uptake by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Int J Parasitol. 2003 Sep 15; 33(10):1087-97. PMID: 13129531.
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    96. Hoar BR, Carpenter TE, Singer RS, Gardner I. Regional risk of exporting cattle seropositive for bluetongue virus from the United States. Am J Vet Res. 2003 May; 64(5):520-9. PMID: 12755289.
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    97. Hill AE, Carpenter TE, Gardner I, Stover SM. Evaluation of a stochastic Markov-chain model for the development of forelimb injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses. Am J Vet Res. 2003 Mar; 64(3):328-37. PMID: 12661874.
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    98. Vatistas NJ, Nieto JE, Van Hoogmoed L, Gardner I, Snyder JR. Use of an isolated intestinal circuit to evaluate the effect of ischemia and reperfusion on mucosal permeability of the equine jejunum. Vet Surg. 2003 Jan-Feb; 32(1):52-61. PMID: 12520490.
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    99. Duarte PC, Daft BM, Conrad PA, Packham AE, Gardner I. Comparison of a serum indirect fluorescent antibody test with two Western blot tests for the diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003 Jan; 15(1):8-13. PMID: 12580288.
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    100. Packham AE, Conrad PA, Wilson WD, Jeanes LV, Sverlow KW, Gardner I, Daft BM, Marsh AE, Blagburn BL, Ferraro GL, Barr BC. Qualitative evaluation of selective tests for detection of Neospora hughesi antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of experimentally infected horses. J Parasitol. 2002 Dec; 88(6):1239-46. PMID: 12537119.
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    101. Daft BM, Barr BC, Gardner I, Read D, Bell W, Peyser KG, Ardans A, Kinde H, Morrow JK. Sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Oct 01; 221(7):1007-13. PMID: 12369679.
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    102. Ziccardi MH, Gardner I, Mazet JA, Denison MS. Application of the luciferase cell culture bioassay for the detection of refined petroleum products. Mar Pollut Bull. 2002 Oct; 44(10):983-91. PMID: 12474956.
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    103. Ziccardi MH, Gardner I, Denison MS. Application of the luciferase recombinant cell culture bioassay system for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002 Oct; 21(10):2027-33. PMID: 12371477.
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    104. Ziccardi MH, Mazet JA, Gardner I, Boyce WM, Denison MS. Validation of a cell culture bioassay for detection of petroleum exposure in mink (Mustela vison) as a model for detection in sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Am J Vet Res. 2002 Jul; 63(7):963-8. PMID: 12118676.
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    105. Gardner I, Willeberg P, Mousing J. Empirical and theoretical evidence for herd size as a risk factor for swine diseases. Anim Health Res Rev. 2002 Jun; 3(1):43-55. PMID: 12400869.
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    106. Fritcher DL, Mazet JA, Ziccardi MH, Gardner I. Evaluation of two direct immunoassays for rapid detection of petroleum products on marine birds. Mar Pollut Bull. 2002 May; 44(5):388-95. PMID: 12146821.
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    107. Pouillot R, Gerbier G, Gardner I. "TAGS", a program for the evaluation of test accuracy in the absence of a gold standard. Prev Vet Med. 2002 Feb 14; 53(1-2):67-81. PMID: 11821138.
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    108. Gardner I, Stryhn H, Lind P, Collins MT. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases. Prev Vet Med. 2000 May 30; 45(1-2):107-22. PMID: 10802336.
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