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Nigel J Maclachlan

Title(s)Professor Emeritus, SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
SchoolUniversity of California, Davis
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Maclachlan NJ, Zientara S, Wilson WC, Richt JA, Savini G. Bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses: recent developments with these globally re-emerging arboviral infections of ruminants. Curr Opin Virol. 2019 02; 34:56-62. PMID: 30654271.
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    2. Maclachlan NJ, Osburn BI. Teratogenic bluetongue and related orbivirus infections in pregnant ruminant livestock: timing and pathogen genetics are critical. Curr Opin Virol. 2017 12; 27:31-35. PMID: 29107849.
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    3. Weyer CT, Grewar JD, Burger P, Joone C, Lourens C, MacLachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ. Dynamics of African horse sickness virus nucleic acid and antibody in horses following immunization with a commercial polyvalent live attenuated vaccine. Vaccine. 2017 04 25; 35(18):2504-2510. PMID: 28341113.
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    4. Mayo C, Lee J, Kopanke J, MacLachlan NJ. A review of potential bluetongue virus vaccine strategies. Vet Microbiol. 2017 Jul; 206:84-90. PMID: 28377132.
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    5. Weyer CT, Grewar JD, Burger P, Rossouw E, Lourens C, Joone C, le Grange M, Coetzee P, Venter E, Martin DP, MacLachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ. African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 12; 22(12):2087-2096. PMID: 27442883.
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    6. Mayo C, Shelley C, MacLachlan NJ, Gardner I, Hartley D, Barker C. A Deterministic Model to Quantify Risk and Guide Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Bluetongue Virus Transmission in California Dairy Cattle. PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0165806. PMID: 27812161.
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    7. Conte A, Daniels P, Goffredo M, Ostlund EN, Di Lorenzo A, Savini L, Tora S, Lubisi BA, Calistri P, Bruno R, Di Sabatino D, Ippoliti C, Monaco F, Mertens PP, Lorusso A, Capobianco A, Ripani A, MacLachlan NJ, Savini G. OIEBTLABNET: the web-based network of the OIE Bluetongue Reference Laboratories. Vet Ital. 2016 Sep 30; 52(3-4):187-193. PMID: 27723026.
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    8. Mayo C, Mullens B, Gibbs EP, MacLachlan NJ. Overwintering of Bluetongue virus in temperate zones. Vet Ital. 2016 Sep 30; 52(3-4):243-246. PMID: 27723033.
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    9. Carossino M, Loynachan AT, James MacLachlan N, Drew C, Shuck KM, Timoney PJ, Del Piero F, Balasuriya UB. Detection of equine arteritis virus by two chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assays (conventional and RNAscope(®)) and assessment of their performance in tissues from aborted equine fetuses. Arch Virol. 2016 Nov; 161(11):3125-36. PMID: 27541817.
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    10. MacLachlan NJ. The changing global face of Bluetongue: from the beginning. Vet Ital. 2015 Oct-Dec; 51(4):249-51. PMID: 26129785.
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    11. McDermott EG, Mayo CE, Gerry AC, Laudier D, MacLachlan NJ, Mullens BA. Bluetongue virus infection creates light averse Culicoides vectors and serious errors in transmission risk estimates. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Sep 17; 8:460. PMID: 26382938.
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    12. Maclachlan NJ, Mayo CE, Daniels PW, Savini G, Zientara S, Gibbs EP. Bluetongue. Rev Sci Tech. 2015 Aug; 34(2):329-40. PMID: 26601438.
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    13. Maclachlan NJ, Zientara S, Savini G, Daniels PW. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease. Rev Sci Tech. 2015 Aug; 34(2):341-51. PMID: 26601439.
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    14. Weyer CT, Joone C, Lourens CW, Monyai MS, Koekemoer O, Grewar JD, van Schalkwyk A, Majiwa PO, MacLachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ. Development of three triplex real-time reverse transcription PCR assays for the qualitative molecular typing of the nine serotypes of African horse sickness virus. J Virol Methods. 2015 Oct; 223:69-74. PMID: 26232526.
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    15. McVey DS, Drolet BS, Ruder MG, Wilson WC, Nayduch D, Pfannenstiel R, Cohnstaedt LW, MacLachlan NJ, Gay CG. Orbiviruses: A North American Perspective. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Jun; 15(6):335-8. PMID: 26086554.
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    16. McVey DS, MacLachlan NJ. Vaccines for Prevention of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Livestock: A North American Perspective. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Jun; 15(6):385-96. PMID: 26086559.
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    17. Osborne CJ, Mayo CE, Mullens BA, McDermott EG, Gerry AC, Reisen WK, MacLachlan NJ. Lack of Evidence for Laboratory and Natural Vertical Transmission of Bluetongue Virus in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Med Entomol. 2015 Mar; 52(2):274-7. PMID: 26336312.
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    18. Mayo CE, Mullens BA, Reisen WK, Osborne CJ, Gibbs EP, Gardner IA, MacLachlan NJ. Seasonal and interseasonal dynamics of bluetongue virus infection of dairy cattle and Culicoides sonorensis midges in northern California--implications for virus overwintering in temperate zones. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106975. PMID: 25215598.
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    19. Gaudreault NN, Mayo CE, Jasperson DC, Crossley BM, Breitmeyer RE, Johnson DJ, Ostlund EN, MacLachlan NJ, Wilson WC. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Bluetongue virus serotype 2 strains isolated in the Americas including a novel strain from the western United States. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2014 Jul; 26(4):553-557. PMID: 24916442.
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    20. Balasuriya UB, Zhang J, Go YY, MacLachlan NJ. Experiences with infectious cDNA clones of equine arteritis virus: lessons learned and insights gained. Virology. 2014 Aug; 462-463:388-403. PMID: 24913633.
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    21. Osborne CJ, Mayo CE, Mullens BA, Maclachlan NJ. Estimating Culicoides sonorensis biting midge abundance using digital image analysis. Med Vet Entomol. 2014 Dec; 28(4):461-4. PMID: 24810537.
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    22. Crafford JE, Lourens CW, Smit TK, Gardner IA, MacLachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ. Serological response of foals to polyvalent and monovalent live-attenuated African horse sickness virus vaccines. Vaccine. 2014 Jun 17; 32(29):3611-6. PMID: 24814557.
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    23. Mayo CE, Osborne CJ, Mullens BA, Gerry AC, Gardner IA, Reisen WK, Barker CM, Maclachlan NJ. Seasonal variation and impact of waste-water lagoons as larval habitat on the population dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae) at two dairy farms in northern California. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89633. PMID: 24586925.
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    24. Maclachlan NJ, Henderson C, Schwartz-Cornil I, Zientara S. The immune response of ruminant livestock to bluetongue virus: from type I interferon to antibody. Virus Res. 2014 Mar; 182:71-7. PMID: 24120757.
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    25. Balasuriya UB, Go YY, MacLachlan NJ. Equine arteritis virus. Vet Microbiol. 2013 Nov 29; 167(1-2):93-122. PMID: 23891306.
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    26. Maclachlan NJ, Mayo CE. Potential strategies for control of bluetongue, a globally emerging, Culicoides-transmitted viral disease of ruminant livestock and wildlife. Antiviral Res. 2013 Aug; 99(2):79-90. PMID: 23664958.
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    27. Maclachlan NJ, Wilson WC, Crossley BM, Mayo CE, Jasperson DC, Breitmeyer RE, Whiteford AM. Novel serotype of bluetongue virus, western North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Apr; 19(4):665-6. PMID: 23750753.
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    28. Crafford JE, Lourens CW, Gardner IA, Maclachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ. Passive transfer and rate of decay of maternal antibody against African horse sickness virus in South African Thoroughbred foals. Equine Vet J. 2013 Sep; 45(5):604-7. PMID: 23294121.
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    29. Guthrie AJ, Maclachlan NJ, Joone C, Lourens CW, Weyer CT, Quan M, Monyai MS, Gardner IA. Diagnostic accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness virus. J Virol Methods. 2013 Apr; 189(1):30-5. PMID: 23291102.
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    30. Weyer CT, Quan M, Joone C, Lourens CW, MacLachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses. Equine Vet J. 2013 Jan; 45(1):117-9. PMID: 22612775.
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    31. Mayo CE, Mullens BA, Gerry AC, Barker CM, Mertens PP, Maan S, Maan N, Gardner IA, Guthrie AJ, MacLachlan NJ. The combination of abundance and infection rates of Culicoides sonorensis estimates risk of subsequent bluetongue virus infection of sentinel cattle on California dairy farms. Vet Parasitol. 2012 Jun 08; 187(1-2):295-301. PMID: 22281150.
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    32. Scheffer EG, Venter GJ, Labuschagne K, Page PC, Mullens BA, MacLachlan NJ, Osterrieder N, Guthrie AJ. Comparison of two trapping methods for Culicoides biting midges and determination of African horse sickness virus prevalence in midge populations at Onderstepoort, South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2012 Apr 30; 185(2-4):265-73. PMID: 22014560.
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    33. Mayo CE, Gardner IA, Mullens BA, Barker CM, Gerry AC, Guthrie AJ, MacLachlan NJ. Anthropogenic and meteorological factors influence vector abundance and prevalence of bluetongue virus infection of dairy cattle in California. Vet Microbiol. 2012 Mar 23; 155(2-4):158-64. PMID: 21930352.
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    34. Maclachlan NJ. Bluetongue: history, global epidemiology, and pathogenesis. Prev Vet Med. 2011 Nov 01; 102(2):107-11. PMID: 21570141.
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    35. Zientara S, MacLachlan NJ, Calistri P, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Savini G. Bluetongue vaccination in Europe. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010 Sep; 9(9):989-91. PMID: 20822340.
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    36. Brault SA, Bird BH, Balasuriya UB, MacLachlan NJ. Genetic heterogeneity and variation in viral load during equid herpesvirus-2 infection of foals. Vet Microbiol. 2011 Jan 27; 147(3-4):253-61. PMID: 20655670.
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    37. Mayo CE, Crossley BM, Hietala SK, Gardner IA, Breitmeyer RE, Maclachlan NJ. Colostral transmission of bluetongue virus nucleic acid among newborn dairy calves in California. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010 Aug 01; 57(4):277-81. PMID: 20557494.
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    38. Brault SA, Blanchard MT, Gardner IA, Stott JL, Pusterla N, Mapes SM, Vernau W, Dejong KD, Maclachlan NJ. The immune response of foals to natural infection with equid herpesvirus-2 and its association with febrile illness. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010 Sep 15; 137(1-2):136-41. PMID: 20646766.
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    39. Brault SA, Maclachlan NJ. Equid gammaherpesviruses: Persistent bystanders or true pathogens? Vet J. 2011 Jan; 187(1):14-5. PMID: 20335057.
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    40. Quan M, Lourens CW, MacLachlan NJ, Gardner IA, Guthrie AJ. Development and optimisation of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay targeting the VP7 and NS2 genes of African horse sickness virus. J Virol Methods. 2010 Jul; 167(1):45-52. PMID: 20304015.
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    41. Drew CP, Heller MC, Mayo C, Watson JL, Maclachlan NJ. Bluetongue virus infection activates bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010 Aug 15; 136(3-4):292-6. PMID: 20359752.
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    42. Drew CP, Gardner IA, Mayo CE, Matsuo E, Roy P, MacLachlan NJ. Bluetongue virus infection alters the impedance of monolayers of bovine endothelial cells as a result of cell death. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010 Jul; 136(1-2):108-15. PMID: 20359753.
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    43. Maclachlan NJ. Global implications of the recent emergence of bluetongue virus in Europe. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010 Mar; 26(1):163-71, table of contents. PMID: 20117549.
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    44. Maclachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ. Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other orbivirus diseases. Vet Res. 2010 Nov-Dec; 41(6):35. PMID: 20167199.
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    45. Ortega J, Crossley B, Dechant JE, Drew CP, Maclachlan NJ. Fatal bluetongue virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in California. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010 Jan; 22(1):134-6. PMID: 20093703.
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    46. Gorman JK, Gabriel M, MacLachlan NJ, Nieto N, Foley J, Spier S. Pilot immunization of mice infected with an equine strain of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Vet Ther. 2010; 11(1):E1-8. PMID: 20949428.
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    47. Pusterla N, Mapes S, Madigan JE, Maclachlan NJ, Ferraro GL, Watson JL, Spier SJ, Wilson WD. Prevalence of EHV-1 in adult horses transported over long distances. Vet Rec. 2009 Oct 17; 165(16):473-5. PMID: 19850855.
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    48. Makoschey B, Maclachlan J, v Wuijckhuise L, Kirschvink N, dal Pozzo F, Petit H, Kaandorp-Huber C, v Rijn P, Sellal E, Oura C, Boinas F, Cavirani S, de Clercq K, Lucientes J, Meijjes CP, Zientara S, Meyer G, Thiry E. Bluetongue control in Europe--new challenges and achievements. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2009 Jul-Aug; 122(7-8):314-24. PMID: 19681404.
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    49. Guthrie AJ, Quan M, Lourens CW, Audonnet JC, Minke JM, Yao J, He L, Nordgren R, Gardner IA, Maclachlan NJ. Protective immunization of horses with a recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the outer capsid proteins of African horse sickness virus. Vaccine. 2009 Jul 16; 27(33):4434-8. PMID: 19490959.
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    50. Maclachlan NJ, Drew CP, Darpel KE, Worwa G. The pathology and pathogenesis of bluetongue. J Comp Pathol. 2009 Jul; 141(1):1-16. PMID: 19476953.
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    51. Worwa G, Hilbe M, Ehrensperger F, Chaignat V, Hofmann MA, Griot C, Maclachlan NJ, Thuer B. Experimental transplacental infection of sheep with bluetongue virus serotype 8. Vet Rec. 2009 Apr 18; 164(16):499-500. PMID: 19377090.
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    52. Bird BH, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST, Maclachlan NJ. Rift Valley fever virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Apr 01; 234(7):883-93. PMID: 19335238.
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    53. Nieto NC, Foley JE, MacLachlan NJ, Yuan T, Spier SJ. Evaluation of hepatic disease in mice following intradermal inoculation with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Am J Vet Res. 2009 Feb; 70(2):257-62. PMID: 19231959.
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    54. Shoorijeh SJ, Ramin AG, Maclachlan NJ, Osburn BI, Tamadon A, Behzadi MA, Mahdavi M, Araskhani A, Samani D, Rezajou N, Amin-Pour A. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus infection in sheep flocks in West Azerbaijan, Iran. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 May; 33(3):243-7. PMID: 19059645.
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    55. Zhang J, Timoney PJ, Maclachlan NJ, Balasuriya UB. Identification of an additional neutralization determinant of equine arteritis virus. Virus Res. 2008 Dec; 138(1-2):150-3. PMID: 18851997.
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    56. Worwa G, Thür B, Griot C, Hofmann M, MacLachlan JN, Chaignat V. [Bluetongue disease in Swiss sheep breeds: clinical signs after experimental infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2008 Oct; 150(10):491-8. PMID: 18821508.
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    57. Zhang J, Go YY, MacLachlan NJ, Meade BJ, Timoney PJ, Balasuriya UB. Amino acid substitutions in the structural or nonstructural proteins of a vaccine strain of equine arteritis virus are associated with its attenuation. Virology. 2008 Sep 01; 378(2):355-62. PMID: 18619638.
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    58. Zhang J, Timoney PJ, MacLachlan NJ, McCollum WH, Balasuriya UB. Persistent equine arteritis virus infection in HeLa cells. J Virol. 2008 Sep; 82(17):8456-64. PMID: 18579588.
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    59. Schwartz-Cornil I, Mertens PP, Contreras V, Hemati B, Pascale F, Bréard E, Mellor PS, MacLachlan NJ, Zientara S. Bluetongue virus: virology, pathogenesis and immunity. Vet Res. 2008 Sep-Oct; 39(5):46. PMID: 18495078.
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    60. MacLachlan NJ, Crafford JE, Vernau W, Gardner IA, Goddard A, Guthrie AJ, Venter EH. Experimental reproduction of severe bluetongue in sheep. Vet Pathol. 2008 May; 45(3):310-5. PMID: 18487487.
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    61. Maclachlan NJ, Osburn BI. Induced brain lesions in calves infected with bluetongue virus. Vet Rec. 2008 Apr 12; 162(15):490-1. PMID: 18408202.
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    62. Bell SA, Pusterla N, Balasuriya UB, Mapes SM, Nyberg NL, MacLachlan NJ. Isolation of a gammaherpesvirus similar to asinine herpesvirus-2 (AHV-2) from a mule and a survey of mules and donkeys for AHV-2 infection by real-time PCR. Vet Microbiol. 2008 Jul 27; 130(1-2):176-83. PMID: 18280676.
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    63. Nielsen CF, Reisen WK, Armijos MV, Maclachlan NJ, Scott TW. High subclinical West Nile virus incidence among nonvaccinated horses in northern California associated with low vector abundance and infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Jan; 78(1):45-52. PMID: 18187784.
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    64. Savini G, MacLachlan NJ, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Zientara S. Vaccines against bluetongue in Europe. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Mar; 31(2-3):101-20. PMID: 17765305.
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    65. MacLachlan NJ, Zientara S, Stallknecht DE, Boone JD, Goekjian VH, Sailleau C, Balasuriya UB. Phylogenetic comparison of the S10 genes of recent isolates of bluetongue virus from the United States and French Martinique Island. Virus Res. 2007 Nov; 129(2):236-40. PMID: 17719118.
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    66. Balasuriya UB, Nadler SA, Wilson WC, Pritchard LI, Smythe AB, Savini G, Monaco F, De Santis P, Zhang N, Tabachnick WJ, Maclachlan NJ. The NS3 proteins of global strains of bluetongue virus evolve into regional topotypes through negative (purifying) selection. Vet Microbiol. 2008 Jan 01; 126(1-3):91-100. PMID: 17706379.
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    67. Balasuriya UB, Snijder EJ, Heidner HW, Zhang J, Zevenhoven-Dobbe JC, Boone JD, McCollum WH, Timoney PJ, MacLachlan NJ. Development and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of the virulent Bucyrus strain of Equine arteritis virus. J Gen Virol. 2007 Mar; 88(Pt 3):918-24. PMID: 17325365.
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    68. MacLachlan NJ, Balasuriya UB, Davis NL, Collier M, Johnston RE, Ferraro GL, Guthrie AJ. Experiences with new generation vaccines against equine viral arteritis, West Nile disease and African horse sickness. Vaccine. 2007 Jul 26; 25(30):5577-82. PMID: 17267078.
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    69. Gardner IA, Wong SJ, Ferraro GL, Balasuriya UB, Hullinger PJ, Wilson WD, Shi PY, MacLachlan NJ. Incidence and effects of West Nile virus infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in California. Vet Res. 2007 Jan-Feb; 38(1):109-16. PMID: 17274156.
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    70. Boone JD, Balasuriya UB, Karaca K, Audonnet JC, Yao J, He L, Nordgren R, Monaco F, Savini G, Gardner IA, Maclachlan NJ. Recombinant canarypox virus vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the VP2 and VP5 outer capsid proteins of bluetongue virus induces high level protection in sheep. Vaccine. 2007 Jan 08; 25(4):672-8. PMID: 17059856.
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    71. Cannon AB, Luff JA, Brault AC, MacLachlan NJ, Case JB, Green EN, Sykes JE. Acute encephalitis, polyarthritis, and myocarditis associated with West Nile virus infection in a dog. J Vet Intern Med. 2006 Sep-Oct; 20(5):1219-23. PMID: 17063720.
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    72. Imai DM, Cornish J, Nordhausen R, Ellis J, MacLachlan NJ. Renal tubular necrosis and interstitial hemorrhage ("turkey-egg kidney") in a circovirus-infected Yorkshire cross pig. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006 Sep; 18(5):496-9. PMID: 17037624.
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    73. Bell SA, Balasuriya UB, Nordhausen RW, MacLachlan NJ. Isolation of equine herpesvirus-5 from blood mononuclear cells of a gelding. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006 Sep; 18(5):472-5. PMID: 17037617.
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    74. Balasuriya UB, Shi PY, Wong SJ, Demarest VL, Gardner IA, Hullinger PJ, Ferraro GL, Boone JD, De Cino CL, Glaser AL, Renshaw RW, Ledizet M, Koski RA, MacLachlan NJ. Detection of antibodies to West Nile virus in equine sera using microsphere immunoassay. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006 Jul; 18(4):392-5. PMID: 16921881.
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    75. Bell SA, Leclere M, Gardner IA, Maclachlan NJ. Equine adenovirus 1 infection of hospitalised and healthy foals and horses. Equine Vet J. 2006 Jul; 38(4):379-81. PMID: 16866210.
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    76. Bell SA, Balasuriya UB, Gardner IA, Barry PA, Wilson WD, Ferraro GL, MacLachlan NJ. Temporal detection of equine herpesvirus infections of a cohort of mares and their foals. Vet Microbiol. 2006 Sep 10; 116(4):249-57. PMID: 16774810.
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    77. MacLachlan NJ, Osburn BI. Impact of bluetongue virus infection on the international movement and trade of ruminants. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 May 01; 228(9):1346-9. PMID: 16649936.
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    78. MacLachlan NJ, Balasuriya UB. Equine viral arteritis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006; 581:429-33. PMID: 17037573.
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    79. Murphy MD, Howerth EW, MacLachlan NJ, Stallknecht DE. Genetic variation among epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in the southeastern United States: 1978-2001. Infect Genet Evol. 2005 Mar; 5(2):157-65. PMID: 15639748.
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    80. Balasuriya UB, MacLachlan NJ. The immune response to equine arteritis virus: potential lessons for other arteriviruses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004 Dec 08; 102(3):107-29. PMID: 15507299.
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    81. Nelson DM, Gardner IA, Chiles RF, Balasuriya UB, Eldridge BF, Scott TW, Reisen WK, Maclachlan NJ. Prevalence of antibodies against Saint Louis encephalitis and Jamestown Canyon viruses in California horses. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004 May; 27(3):209-15. PMID: 15001316.
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    82. Pesavento PA, MacLachlan NJ, Dillard-Telm L, Grant CK, Hurley KF. Pathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings in naturally occurring virulent systemic feline calicivirus infection in cats. Vet Pathol. 2004 May; 41(3):257-63. PMID: 15133174.
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    83. Balasuriya UB, Dobbe JC, Heidner HW, Smalley VL, Navarrette A, Snijder EJ, MacLachlan NJ. Characterization of the neutralization determinants of equine arteritis virus using recombinant chimeric viruses and site-specific mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone. Virology. 2004 Apr 10; 321(2):235-46. PMID: 15051384.
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    84. Balasuriya UB, Hedges JF, Smalley VL, Navarrette A, McCollum WH, Timoney PJ, Snijder EJ, MacLachlan NJ. Genetic characterization of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection of stallions. J Gen Virol. 2004 Feb; 85(Pt 2):379-90. PMID: 14769895.
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    85. Moore BD, Balasuriya UB, Watson JL, Bosio CM, MacKay RJ, MacLachlan NJ. Virulent and avirulent strains of equine arteritis virus induce different quantities of TNF-alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines in alveolar and blood-derived equine macrophages. Virology. 2003 Sep 30; 314(2):662-70. PMID: 14554093.
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    86. Guthrie AJ, Howell PG, Hedges JF, Bosman AM, Balasuriya UB, McCollum WH, Timoney PJ, MacLachlan NJ. Lateral transmission of equine arteritis virus among Lipizzaner stallions in South Africa. Equine Vet J. 2003 Sep; 35(6):596-600. PMID: 14515961.
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    87. Guthrie AJ, Howell PG, Gardner IA, Swanepoel RE, Nurton JP, Harper CK, Pardini A, Groenewald D, Visage CW, Hedges JF, Balasuriya UB, Cornel AJ, MacLachlan NJ. West Nile virus infection of Thoroughbred horses in South Africa (2000-2001). Equine Vet J. 2003 Sep; 35(6):601-5. PMID: 14515962.
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    88. Wagner HM, Balasuriya UB, James MacLachlan N. The serologic response of horses to equine arteritis virus as determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (c-ELISAs) to structural and non-structural viral proteins. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003 Jul; 26(4):251-60. PMID: 12676125.
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    89. McLaughlin BE, DeMaula CD, Wilson WC, Boyce WM, MacLachlan NJ. Replication of bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in pulmonary artery endothelial cells obtained from cattle, sheep, and deer. Am J Vet Res. 2003 Jul; 64(7):860-5. PMID: 12856770.
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    90. Moore BD, Balasuriya UB, Nurton JP, McCollum WH, Timoney PJ, Guthrie AJ, MacLachlan NJ. Differentiation of strains of equine arteritis virus of differing virulence to horses by growth in equine endothelial cells. Am J Vet Res. 2003 Jun; 64(6):779-84. PMID: 12828265.
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    91. De Cock HE, Affolter VK, Wisner ER, Ferraro GL, MacLachlan NJ. Progressive swelling, hyperkeratosis, and fibrosis of distal limbs in Clydesdales, Shires, and Belgian draft horses, suggestive of primary lymphedema. Lymphat Res Biol. 2003; 1(3):191-9. PMID: 15624437.
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    193. Brown CC, MacLachlan NJ. Congenital encephalopathy in a calf. Vet Pathol. 1983 Nov; 20(6):770-3. PMID: 6316618.
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    194. MacLachlan NJ, Osburn BI. Bluetongue virus-induced hydranencephaly in cattle. Vet Pathol. 1983 Sep; 20(5):563-73. PMID: 6314630.
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    195. Osburn BI, MacLachlan NJ, Terrell TG. Ontogeny of the immune system. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1982 Nov 15; 181(10):1049-52. PMID: 6294026.
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    196. MacLachlan NJ, Divers TJ. Hemolytic anemia and fibrinoid change of renal vessels in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1982 Oct 01; 181(7):716-7. PMID: 7141972.
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    197. Madewell BR, Carlson GP, MacLachlan NJ, Feldman BF. Lymphosarcoma with leukemia in a horse. Am J Vet Res. 1982 May; 43(5):807-12. PMID: 6896410.
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    198. MacLachlan NJ, Rosenquist BD. Duration of protection of calves against rhinovirus challenge exposure by infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-induced interferon in nasal secretions. Am J Vet Res. 1982 Feb; 43(2):289-93. PMID: 6178325.
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    199. MacLachlan NJ, Gribble DH, East NE. Polyradiculoneuritis in a goat. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1982 Jan 15; 180(2):166-7. PMID: 7061314.
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    200. MacLachlan NJ, Burgess GW. A survey of feline viral upper respiratory tract infections. N Z Vet J. 1978 Oct; 26(10):260-1. PMID: 216958.
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    201. Bruere AN, West DM, Maclachlan NJ, Edwards JD, Chapman HM. Genital infection of ram hoggets associated with a gram-negative pleomorphic organism. N Z Vet J. 1977 Jul; 25(7):191-3. PMID: 275719.
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    202. Copland MD, Maclachlan NJ. Aplasia of the epididymis and vas deferens in the dog. J Small Anim Pract. 1976 Jul; 17(7):443-9. PMID: 957620.
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