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David Segal

Title(s)Professor, Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine
SchoolUniversity of California, Davis
Phone530-754-9134
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Nonhuman Primate Testing Center for Evaluation of Somatic Cell Genome Editing Tools
    NIH U42OD027094Apr 15, 2019 - Mar 31, 2024
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Precision Nonhuman Primate Models for Congenital Diseases
    NIH/NINDS R21NS104675Apr 15, 2018 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    CRISPR-based epigenetic modifiers
    NIH/NCI R21CA204563Jun 15, 2016 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NextGen DNA Binding Proteins Based on TAL Domains
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM097073Apr 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Towards Gene Therapy for Angelman Syndrome
    NIH/NINDS R21NS071028Sep 15, 2010 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SEER - a novel method for the detection of genetic sequences
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM077403Jun 1, 2006 - May 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Inactivation of HIV by in vivo genetic modification
    NIH/NCI R21CA103651Jul 1, 2003 - Jun 30, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Lopez SJ, Laufer BI, Beitnere U, Berg EL, Silverman JL, O'Geen H, Segal DJ, LaSalle JM. Imprinting effects of UBE3A loss on synaptic gene networks and Wnt signaling pathways. Hum Mol Genet. 2019 Oct 18. PMID: 31625566.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Segal DJ. The Right Tools for the Right Job: CRISPR-pass Could Offer Safe Gene Correction for Many Disorders. Mol Ther. 2019 Aug 07; 27(8):1346-1347. PMID: 31248723.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gomez JA, Beitnere U, Segal DJ. Live-Animal Epigenome Editing: Convergence of Novel Techniques. Trends Genet. 2019 Jul; 35(7):527-541. PMID: 31128888.
      View in: PubMed
    4. O'Geen H, Bates SL, Carter SS, Nisson KA, Halmai J, Fink KD, Rhie SK, Farnham PJ, Segal DJ. Ezh2-dCas9 and KRAB-dCas9 enable engineering of epigenetic memory in a context-dependent manner. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2019 May 03; 12(1):26. PMID: 31053162.
      View in: PubMed
    5. De Franco S, Vandenameele J, Brans A, Verlaine O, Bendak K, Damblon C, Matagne A, Segal DJ, Galleni M, Mackay JP, Vandevenne M. Exploring the suitability of RanBP2-type Zinc Fingers for RNA-binding protein design. Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 21; 9(1):2484. PMID: 30792407.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Lopez SJ, Segal DJ, LaSalle JM. UBE3A: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase With Genome-Wide Impact in Neurodevelopmental Disease. Front Mol Neurosci. 2018; 11:476. PMID: 30686997.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Ha DT, Ghosh S, Ahn CH, Segal DJ, Kim MS. Pathogen-specific DNA sensing with engineered zinc finger proteins immobilized on a polymer chip. Analyst. 2018 Aug 20; 143(17):4009-4016. PMID: 30043772.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ren C, Xu K, Segal DJ, Zhang Z. Strategies for the Enrichment and Selection of Genetically Modified Cells. Trends Biotechnol. 2019 01; 37(1):56-71. PMID: 30135027.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Coggins NB, Stultz J, O'Geen H, Carvajal-Carmona LG, Segal DJ. Author Correction: Methods for Scarless, Selection-Free Generation of Human Cells and Allele-Specific Functional Analysis of Disease-Associated SNPs and Variants of Uncertain Significance. Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 12; 8(1):6140. PMID: 29643450.
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    10. O'Geen H, Ren C, Coggins NB, Bates SL, Segal DJ. Unexpected binding behaviors of bacterial Argonautes in human cells cast doubts on their use as targetable gene regulators. PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0193818. PMID: 29584750.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Gallego-Bartolomé J, Gardiner J, Liu W, Papikian A, Ghoshal B, Kuo HY, Zhao JM, Segal DJ, Jacobsen SE. Targeted DNA demethylation of the Arabidopsis genome using the human TET1 catalytic domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 02 27; 115(9):E2125-E2134. PMID: 29444862.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Ren C, Adams AN, Pyles B, Bailus BJ, O'Geen H, Segal DJ. In Vivo Applications of Cell-Penetrating Zinc-Finger Transcription Factors. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1867:239-251. PMID: 30155828.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Pyles B, Bailus BJ, O'Geen H, Segal DJ. Purified Protein Delivery to Activate an Epigenetically Silenced Allele in Mouse Brain. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1767:227-239. PMID: 29524138.
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    14. Coggins NB, Stultz J, O'Geen H, Carvajal-Carmona LG, Segal DJ. Methods for Scarless, Selection-Free Generation of Human Cells and Allele-Specific Functional Analysis of Disease-Associated SNPs and Variants of Uncertain Significance. Sci Rep. 2017 11 08; 7(1):15044. PMID: 29118424.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Lopez SJ, Dunaway K, Islam MS, Mordaunt C, Vogel Ciernia A, Meguro-Horike M, Horike SI, Segal DJ, LaSalle JM. UBE3A-mediated regulation of imprinted genes and epigenome-wide marks in human neurons. Epigenetics. 2017; 12(11):982-990. PMID: 28925810.
      View in: PubMed
    16. O'Geen H, Ren C, Nicolet CM, Perez AA, Halmai J, Le VM, Mackay JP, Farnham PJ, Segal DJ. dCas9-based epigenome editing suggests acquisition of histone methylation is not sufficient for target gene repression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Sep 29; 45(17):9901-9916. PMID: 28973434.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Carrington EM, Zhan Y, Brady JL, Zhang JG, Sutherland RM, Anstee NS, Schenk RL, Vikstrom IB, Delconte RB, Segal D, Huntington ND, Bouillet P, Tarlinton DM, Huang DC, Strasser A, Cory S, Herold MJ, Lew AM. Anti-apoptotic proteins BCL-2, MCL-1 and A1 summate collectively to maintain survival of immune cell populations both in vitro and in vivo. Cell Death Differ. 2017 05; 24(5):878-888. PMID: 28362427.
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    18. Fink KD, Deng P, Gutierrez J, Anderson JS, Torrest A, Komarla A, Kalomoiris S, Cary W, Anderson JD, Gruenloh W, Duffy A, Tempkin T, Annett G, Wheelock V, Segal DJ, Nolta JA. Allele-Specific Reduction of the Mutant Huntingtin Allele Using Transcription Activator-Like Effectors in Human Huntington's Disease Fibroblasts. Cell Transplant. 2016; 25(4):677-86. PMID: 26850319.
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    19. Tak YG, Hung Y, Yao L, Grimmer MR, Do A, Bhakta MS, O'Geen H, Segal DJ, Farnham PJ. Effects on the transcriptome upon deletion of a distal element cannot be predicted by the size of the H3K27Ac peak in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 05 19; 44(9):4123-33. PMID: 26743005.
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    20. Bailus BJ, Pyles B, McAlister MM, O'Geen H, Lockwood SH, Adams AN, Nguyen JT, Yu A, Berman RF, Segal DJ. Protein Delivery of an Artificial Transcription Factor Restores Widespread Ube3a Expression in an Angelman Syndrome Mouse Brain. Mol Ther. 2016 Mar; 24(3):548-55. PMID: 26727042.
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    21. O'Geen H, Yu AS, Segal DJ. How specific is CRISPR/Cas9 really? Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2015 Dec; 29:72-8. PMID: 26517564.
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    22. Frank AK, Tran DC, Qu RW, Stohr BA, Segal DJ, Xu L. The Shelterin TIN2 Subunit Mediates Recruitment of Telomerase to Telomeres. PLoS Genet. 2015 Jul; 11(7):e1005410. PMID: 26230315.
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    23. O'Geen H, Henry IM, Bhakta MS, Meckler JF, Segal DJ. A genome-wide analysis of Cas9 binding specificity using ChIP-seq and targeted sequence capture. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Mar 31; 43(6):3389-404. PMID: 25712100.
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    24. Rader C, Segal DJ, Shabat D. Carlos F. Barbas III (1964-2014): Visionary at the interface of chemistry and biology. ACS Chem Biol. 2014 Aug 15; 9(8):1645-6. PMID: 25123302.
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    25. Vandevenne M, O'Connell MR, Helder S, Shepherd NE, Matthews JM, Kwan AH, Segal DJ, Mackay JP. Engineering specificity changes on a RanBP2 zinc finger that binds single-stranded RNA. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Jul 21; 53(30):7848-52. PMID: 25044781.
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    26. Barrilleaux BL, Burow D, Lockwood SH, Yu A, Segal DJ, Knoepfler PS. Miz-1 activates gene expression via a novel consensus DNA binding motif. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101151. PMID: 24983942.
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    27. Lockwood SH, Guan A, Yu AS, Zhang C, Zykovich A, Korf I, Rannala B, Segal DJ. The functional significance of common polymorphisms in zinc finger transcription factors. G3 (Bethesda). 2014 Jun 26; 4(9):1647-55. PMID: 24970883.
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    28. Bailus BJ, Segal DJ. The prospect of molecular therapy for Angelman syndrome and other monogenic neurologic disorders. BMC Neurosci. 2014 Jun 19; 15:76. PMID: 24946931.
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    29. Johnson LM, Du J, Hale CJ, Bischof S, Feng S, Chodavarapu RK, Zhong X, Marson G, Pellegrini M, Segal DJ, Patel DJ, Jacobsen SE. SRA- and SET-domain-containing proteins link RNA polymerase V occupancy to DNA methylation. Nature. 2014 03 06; 507(7490):124-128. PMID: 24463519.
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    30. Lei H, Sun J, Baldwin EP, Segal DJ, Duan Y. Conformational elasticity can facilitate TALE-DNA recognition. Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2014; 94:347-64. PMID: 24629191.
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    31. Mackay JP, Segal DJ, Crossley M. Is there a telltale RH fingerprint in zinc fingers that recognizes methylated CpG dinucleotides? Trends Biochem Sci. 2013 Sep; 38(9):421-2. PMID: 23992945.
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    32. Owens JB, Mauro D, Stoytchev I, Bhakta MS, Kim MS, Segal DJ, Moisyadi S. Transcription activator like effector (TALE)-directed piggyBac transposition in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Oct; 41(19):9197-207. PMID: 23921635.
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    33. Segal DJ, Meckler JF. Genome engineering at the dawn of the golden age. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2013; 14:135-58. PMID: 23701416.
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    34. Vandevenne M, Jacques DA, Artuz C, Nguyen CD, Kwan AH, Segal DJ, Matthews JM, Crossley M, Guss JM, Mackay JP. New insights into DNA recognition by zinc fingers revealed by structural analysis of the oncoprotein ZNF217. J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 12; 288(15):10616-27. PMID: 23436653.
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    35. Meckler JF, Bhakta MS, Kim MS, Ovadia R, Habrian CH, Zykovich A, Yu A, Lockwood SH, Morbitzer R, Elsäesser J, Lahaye T, Segal DJ, Baldwin EP. Quantitative analysis of TALE-DNA interactions suggests polarity effects. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Apr; 41(7):4118-28. PMID: 23408851.
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    36. Segal DJ. Bacteria herald a new era of gene editing. Elife. 2013 Jan 29; 2:e00563. PMID: 23386979.
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    37. Bhakta MS, Henry IM, Ousterout DG, Das KT, Lockwood SH, Meckler JF, Wallen MC, Zykovich A, Yu Y, Leo H, Xu L, Gersbach CA, Segal DJ. Highly active zinc-finger nucleases by extended modular assembly. Genome Res. 2013 Mar; 23(3):530-8. PMID: 23222846.
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    38. Segal DJ. Beyond the genome and into the clinic. Genome Med. 2012; 4(10):78. PMID: 23114014.
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    39. Meier JL, Yu AS, Korf I, Segal DJ, Dervan PB. Guiding the design of synthetic DNA-binding molecules with massively parallel sequencing. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Oct 24; 134(42):17814-22. PMID: 23013524.
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    40. O'Connell MR, Vandevenne M, Nguyen CD, Matthews JM, Gamsjaeger R, Segal DJ, Mackay JP. Modular assembly of RanBP2-type zinc finger domains to target single-stranded RNA. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012 May 29; 51(22):5371-5. PMID: 22517726.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Owens JB, Urschitz J, Stoytchev I, Dang NC, Stoytcheva Z, Belcaid M, Maragathavally KJ, Coates CJ, Segal DJ, Moisyadi S. Chimeric piggyBac transposases for genomic targeting in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Aug; 40(14):6978-91. PMID: 22492708.
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    42. Männikkö R, Flanagan SE, Sim X, Segal D, Hussain K, Ellard S, Hattersley AT, Ashcroft FM. Mutations of the same conserved glutamate residue in NBD2 of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 subunit of the KATP channel can result in either hyperinsulinism or neonatal diabetes. Diabetes. 2011 Jun; 60(6):1813-22. PMID: 21617188.
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    43. Shimizu Y, Söllü C, Meckler JF, Adriaenssens A, Zykovich A, Cathomen T, Segal DJ. Adding fingers to an engineered zinc finger nuclease can reduce activity. Biochemistry. 2011 Jun 07; 50(22):5033-41. PMID: 21528840.
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    44. Mackay JP, Font J, Segal DJ. The prospects for designer single-stranded RNA-binding proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011 Mar; 18(3):256-61. PMID: 21358629.
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    45. Segal DJ. Zinc-finger nucleases transition to the CoDA. Nat Methods. 2011 Jan; 8(1):53-5. PMID: 21191373.
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    46. Kim MS, Stybayeva G, Lee JY, Revzin A, Segal DJ. A zinc finger protein array for the visual detection of specific DNA sequences for diagnostic applications. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Mar; 39(5):e29. PMID: 21134909.
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    47. Wang Y, Liu L, Davies DR, Segal DM. Dimerization of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is required for ligand binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 19; 285(47):36836-41. PMID: 20861016.
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    48. Furman JL, Badran AH, Ajulo O, Porter JR, Stains CI, Segal DJ, Ghosh I. Toward a general approach for RNA-templated hierarchical assembly of split-proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Aug 25; 132(33):11692-701. PMID: 20681585.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Porter JR, Lockwood SH, Segal DJ, Ghosh I. Seeing genetic and epigenetic information without DNA denaturation using sequence-enabled reassembly (SEER). Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 649:365-82. PMID: 20680847.
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    50. Bhakta MS, Segal DJ. The generation of zinc finger proteins by modular assembly. Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 649:3-30. PMID: 20680825.
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    51. Zykovich A, Korf I, Segal DJ. Bind-n-Seq: high-throughput analysis of in vitro protein-DNA interactions using massively parallel sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Dec; 37(22):e151. PMID: 19843614.
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    52. Furman JL, Badran AH, Shen S, Stains CI, Hannallah J, Segal DJ, Ghosh I. Systematic evaluation of split-fluorescent proteins for the direct detection of native and methylated DNA. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Jul 15; 19(14):3748-51. PMID: 19457665.
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    53. Shimizu Y, Bhakta MS, Segal DJ. Restricted spacer tolerance of a zinc finger nuclease with a six amino acid linker. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Jul 15; 19(14):3970-2. PMID: 19289279.
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    54. Camenisch TD, Brilliant MH, Segal DJ. Critical parameters for genome editing using zinc finger nucleases. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Jun; 8(7):669-76. PMID: 18537722.
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    55. Liu L, Botos I, Wang Y, Leonard JN, Shiloach J, Segal DM, Davies DR. Structural basis of toll-like receptor 3 signaling with double-stranded RNA. Science. 2008 Apr 18; 320(5874):379-81. PMID: 18420935.
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    56. Brayer KJ, Kulshreshtha S, Segal DJ. The protein-binding potential of C2H2 zinc finger domains. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2008; 51(1):9-19. PMID: 18286240.
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    57. Brayer KJ, Segal DJ. Keep your fingers off my DNA: protein-protein interactions mediated by C2H2 zinc finger domains. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2008; 50(3):111-31. PMID: 18253864.
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    58. Cathomen T, Segal DJ, Brondani V, Müller-Lerch F. Generation and functional analysis of zinc finger nucleases. Methods Mol Biol. 2008; 434:277-90. PMID: 18470651.
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    59. Porter JR, Stains CI, Segal DJ, Ghosh I. Split beta-lactamase sensor for the sequence-specific detection of DNA methylation. Anal Chem. 2007 Sep 01; 79(17):6702-8. PMID: 17685552.
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    60. Szczepek M, Brondani V, Büchel J, Serrano L, Segal DJ, Cathomen T. Structure-based redesign of the dimerization interface reduces the toxicity of zinc-finger nucleases. Nat Biotechnol. 2007 Jul; 25(7):786-93. PMID: 17603476.
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    61. Gommans WM, McLaughlin PM, Lindhout BI, Segal DJ, Wiegman DJ, Haisma HJ, van der Zaal BJ, Rots MG. Engineering zinc finger protein transcription factors to downregulate the epithelial glycoprotein-2 promoter as a novel anti-cancer treatment. Mol Carcinog. 2007 May; 46(5):391-401. PMID: 17186549.
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    62. Hartsock WJ, Cohen JD, Segal DJ. Uranyl acetate as a direct inhibitor of DNA-binding proteins. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007 May; 20(5):784-9. PMID: 17432879.
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    63. Shinohara ET, Kaminski JM, Segal DJ, Pelczar P, Kolhe R, Ryan T, Coates CJ, Fraser MJ, Handler AM, Yanagimachi R, Moisyadi S. Active integration: new strategies for transgenesis. Transgenic Res. 2007 Jun; 16(3):333-9. PMID: 17340207.
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    64. O'Neil ML, Kuczenski R, Segal DS, Cho AK, Lacan G, Melega WP. Escalating dose pretreatment induces pharmacodynamic and not pharmacokinetic tolerance to a subsequent high-dose methamphetamine binge. Synapse. 2006 Nov; 60(6):465-73. PMID: 16897726.
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    65. Ghosh I, Stains CI, Ooi AT, Segal DJ. Direct detection of double-stranded DNA: Molecular methods and applications for DNA diagnostics. Mol Biosyst. 2006 Nov; 2(11):551-60. PMID: 17216036.
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    66. Leifer CA, Brooks JC, Hoelzer K, Lopez J, Kennedy MN, Mazzoni A, Segal DM. Cytoplasmic targeting motifs control localization of toll-like receptor 9. J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 17; 281(46):35585-92. PMID: 16990271.
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    67. Segal DJ, Crotty JW, Bhakta MS, Barbas CF, Horton NC. Structure of Aart, a designed six-finger zinc finger peptide, bound to DNA. J Mol Biol. 2006 Oct 20; 363(2):405-21. PMID: 16963084.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Stains CI, Furman JL, Segal DJ, Ghosh I. Site-specific detection of DNA methylation utilizing mCpG-SEER. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Aug 02; 128(30):9761-5. PMID: 16866532.
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    69. Rallabhandi P, Bell J, Boukhvalova MS, Medvedev A, Lorenz E, Arditi M, Hemming VG, Blanco JC, Segal DM, Vogel SN. Analysis of TLR4 polymorphic variants: new insights into TLR4/MD-2/CD14 stoichiometry, structure, and signaling. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 01; 177(1):322-32. PMID: 16785528.
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    70. Bell JK, Askins J, Hall PR, Davies DR, Segal DM. The dsRNA binding site of human Toll-like receptor 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 06; 103(23):8792-7. PMID: 16720699.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Ooi AT, Stains CI, Ghosh I, Segal DJ. Sequence-enabled reassembly of beta-lactamase (SEER-LAC): a sensitive method for the detection of double-stranded DNA. Biochemistry. 2006 Mar 21; 45(11):3620-5. PMID: 16533044.
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    72. Eberhardy SR, Goncalves J, Coelho S, Segal DJ, Berkhout B, Barbas CF. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication with artificial transcription factors targeting the highly conserved primer-binding site. J Virol. 2006 Mar; 80(6):2873-83. PMID: 16501096.
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    73. Carroll D, Morton JJ, Beumer KJ, Segal DJ. Design, construction and in vitro testing of zinc finger nucleases. Nat Protoc. 2006; 1(3):1329-41. PMID: 17406419.
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    74. Alwin S, Gere MB, Guhl E, Effertz K, Barbas CF, Segal DJ, Weitzman MD, Cathomen T. Custom zinc-finger nucleases for use in human cells. Mol Ther. 2005 Oct; 12(4):610-7. PMID: 16039907.
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    75. Dreier B, Fuller RP, Segal DJ, Lund CV, Blancafort P, Huber A, Koksch B, Barbas CF. Development of zinc finger domains for recognition of the 5'-CNN-3' family DNA sequences and their use in the construction of artificial transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 21; 280(42):35588-97. PMID: 16107335.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Stains CI, Porter JR, Ooi AT, Segal DJ, Ghosh I. DNA sequence-enabled reassembly of the green fluorescent protein. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Aug 10; 127(31):10782-3. PMID: 16076155.
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    77. Kolb AF, Coates CJ, Kaminski JM, Summers JB, Miller AD, Segal DJ. Site-directed genome modification: nucleic acid and protein modules for targeted integration and gene correction. Trends Biotechnol. 2005 Aug; 23(8):399-406. PMID: 15982766.
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    78. Coates CJ, Kaminski JM, Summers JB, Segal DJ, Miller AD, Kolb AF. Site-directed genome modification: derivatives of DNA-modifying enzymes as targeting tools. Trends Biotechnol. 2005 Aug; 23(8):407-19. PMID: 15993503.
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    79. Bell JK, Botos I, Hall PR, Askins J, Shiloach J, Segal DM, Davies DR. The molecular structure of the Toll-like receptor 3 ligand-binding domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 02; 102(31):10976-80. PMID: 16043704.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Crotty JW, Etzkorn C, Barbas CF, Segal DJ, Horton NC. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Aart, a designed six-finger zinc-finger peptide, bound to DNA. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005 Jun 01; 61(Pt 6):573-6. PMID: 16511099.
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    81. Blancafort P, Segal DJ, Barbas CF. Designing transcription factor architectures for drug discovery. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec; 66(6):1361-71. PMID: 15340042.
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    82. Tan W, Zhu K, Segal DJ, Barbas CF, Chow SA. Fusion proteins consisting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and the designed polydactyl zinc finger protein E2C direct integration of viral DNA into specific sites. J Virol. 2004 Feb; 78(3):1301-13. PMID: 14722285.
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    83. Segal DJ, Gonçalves J, Eberhardy S, Swan CH, Torbett BE, Li X, Barbas CF. Attenuation of HIV-1 replication in primary human cells with a designed zinc finger transcription factor. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 09; 279(15):14509-19. PMID: 14734553.
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    84. Segal DJ, Stege JT, Barbas CF. Zinc fingers and a green thumb: manipulating gene expression in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2003 Apr; 6(2):163-8. PMID: 12667874.
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    85. Segal DJ, Beerli RR, Blancafort P, Dreier B, Effertz K, Huber A, Koksch B, Lund CV, Magnenat L, Valente D, Barbas CF. Evaluation of a modular strategy for the construction of novel polydactyl zinc finger DNA-binding proteins. Biochemistry. 2003 Feb 25; 42(7):2137-48. PMID: 12590603.
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    86. Spitzer JH, Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Kennedy MN, Segal DM. Toll-like receptor 1 inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in endothelial cells. Eur J Immunol. 2002 04; 32(4):1182-7. PMID: 11932926.
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    87. Segal DJ. The use of zinc finger peptides to study the role of specific factor binding sites in the chromatin environment. Methods. 2002 Jan; 26(1):76-83. PMID: 12054906.
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    88. Segal DJ, Barbas CF. Custom DNA-binding proteins come of age: polydactyl zinc-finger proteins. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2001 Dec; 12(6):632-7. PMID: 11849947.
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    89. Dreier B, Beerli RR, Segal DJ, Flippin JD, Barbas CF. Development of zinc finger domains for recognition of the 5'-ANN-3' family of DNA sequences and their use in the construction of artificial transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 03; 276(31):29466-78. PMID: 11340073.
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    90. Bibikova M, Carroll D, Segal DJ, Trautman JK, Smith J, Kim YG, Chandrasegaran S. Stimulation of homologous recombination through targeted cleavage by chimeric nucleases. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Jan; 21(1):289-97. PMID: 11113203.
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    91. Dreier B, Segal DJ, Barbas CF. Insights into the molecular recognition of the 5'-GNN-3' family of DNA sequences by zinc finger domains. J Mol Biol. 2000 Nov 03; 303(4):489-502. PMID: 11054286.
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    92. Segal DJ, Barbas CF. Design of novel sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2000 Feb; 4(1):34-9. PMID: 10679372.
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    93. Barbas CF, Rader C, Segal DJ, List B, Turner JM. From catalytic asymmetric synthesis to the transcriptional regulation of genes: in vivo and in vitro evolution of proteins. Adv Protein Chem. 2000; 55:317-66. PMID: 11050938.
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    94. Segal DJ, Dreier B, Beerli RR, Barbas CF. Toward controlling gene expression at will: selection and design of zinc finger domains recognizing each of the 5'-GNN-3' DNA target sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 16; 96(6):2758-63. PMID: 10077584.
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    95. Beerli RR, Segal DJ, Dreier B, Barbas CF. Toward controlling gene expression at will: specific regulation of the erbB-2/HER-2 promoter by using polydactyl zinc finger proteins constructed from modular building blocks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Dec 08; 95(25):14628-33. PMID: 9843940.
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    96. Segal DJ, Faruqi AF, Glazer PM, Carroll D. Processing of targeted psoralen cross-links in Xenopus oocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Nov; 17(11):6645-52. PMID: 9343428.
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