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Anne A Knowlton

Title(s)Professor, Cardiovascular Medicine
SchoolUniversity of California, Davis
Phone530-752-5461
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Vascular Inflammation and Exosomes as Mediators in Aging and Dementia
    NIH/NIA R01AG056710Mar 15, 2018 - Feb 28, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Estrogen, Aging and Vascular Inflammation
    VA I01BX000839Oct 1, 2010 - Sep 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Training Program in Basic and Translational Cardiovascular Science
    NIH/NHLBI T32HL086350Dec 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2023
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    HSP60, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL079071Dec 1, 2004 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Human Cardiomyopathy and HSP60
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL077281Jul 1, 2004 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AGING, ESTROGEN, HSPS AND MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
    NIH/NIA R01AG019327May 15, 2001 - Apr 30, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHOSPHORYLATION OF HSP 72 AND CARDIAC PROTECTION
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL058515Aug 1, 1997 - Jul 31, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HSP 70 AND MYOCARDIAL PROTECTION
    NIH/NHLBI R29HL052910Jul 1, 1994 - May 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ROLE OF FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN IN CARDIAC ISCHEMIA
    NIH/NHLBI K11HL001853Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Hwang HV, Lin Y, Rebuffatti MN, Tran DT, Lee L, Gomes AV, Li CS, Knowlton AA. Impaired proteostasis in senescent vascular endothelial cells: a perspective on estrogen and oxidative stress in the aging vasculature. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2019 02 01; 316(2):H421-H429. PMID: 30499713.
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    2. Poe AJ, Knowlton AA. Exosomes and cardiovascular cell-cell communication. Essays Biochem. 2018 05 15; 62(2):193-204. PMID: 29717058.
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    3. Hwang HV, Tran DT, Rebuffatti MN, Li CS, Knowlton AA. Investigation of quercetin and hyperoside as senolytics in adult human endothelial cells. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190374. PMID: 29315311.
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    4. Poe AJ, Knowlton AA. Exosomes as agents of change in the cardiovascular system. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017 10; 111:40-50. PMID: 28782514.
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    5. Frederich BJ, Timofeyev V, Thai PN, Haddad MJ, Poe AJ, Lau VC, Moshref M, Knowlton AA, Sirish P, Chiamvimonvat N. Electrotaxis of cardiac progenitor cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells requires serum and is directed via PI3'K pathways. Heart Rhythm. 2017 11; 14(11):1685-1692. PMID: 28668623.
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    6. Knowlton AA. Paying for the Tolls: The High Cost of the Innate Immune System for the Cardiac Myocyte. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 1003:17-34. PMID: 28667552.
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    7. Zhang Z, Ledford HA, Park S, Wang W, Rafizadeh S, Kim HJ, Xu W, Lu L, Lau VC, Knowlton AA, Zhang XD, Yamoah EN, Chiamvimonvat N. Distinct subcellular mechanisms for the enhancement of the surface membrane expression of SK2 channel by its interacting proteins, a-actinin2 and filamin A. J Physiol. 2017 04 01; 595(7):2271-2284. PMID: 27779751.
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    8. Sun C, Simon SI, Foster GA, Radecke CE, Hwang HV, Zhang X, Hammock BD, Chiamvimonvat N, Knowlton AA. 11,12-Epoxyecosatrienoic acids mitigate endothelial dysfunction associated with estrogen loss and aging: Role of membrane depolarization. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016 05; 94:180-188. PMID: 27079253.
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    9. Malik ZA, Liu TT, Knowlton AA. Cardiac Myocyte Exosome Isolation. Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1448:237-48. PMID: 27317185.
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    10. Knowlton AA, Liu TT. Mitochondrial Dynamics and Heart Failure. Compr Physiol. 2015 Dec 15; 6(1):507-26. PMID: 26756641.
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    11. Myers R, Timofeyev V, Li N, Kim C, Ledford HA, Sirish P, Lau V, Zhang Y, Fayyaz K, Singapuri A, Lopez JE, Knowlton AA, Zhang XD, Chiamvimonvat N. Feedback mechanisms for cardiac-specific microRNAs and cAMP signaling in electrical remodeling. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2015 Aug; 8(4):942-50. PMID: 25995211.
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    12. Heiserman JP, Chen L, Kim BS, Kim SC, Tran AL, Siebenborn N, Knowlton AA. TLR4 mutation and HSP60-induced cell death in adult mouse cardiac myocytes. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2015 May; 20(3):527-35. PMID: 25716072.
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    13. Lu L, Sirish P, Zhang Z, Woltz RL, Li N, Timofeyev V, Knowlton AA, Zhang XD, Yamoah EN, Chiamvimonvat N. Regulation of gene transcription by voltage-gated L-type calcium channel, Cav1.3. J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 20; 290(8):4663-76. PMID: 25538241.
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    14. Chen L, Winger AJ, Knowlton AA. Mitochondrial dynamic changes in health and genetic diseases. Mol Biol Rep. 2014 Nov; 41(11):7053-62. PMID: 25103020.
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    15. Rafizadeh S, Zhang Z, Woltz RL, Kim HJ, Myers RE, Lu L, Tuteja D, Singapuri A, Bigdeli AA, Harchache SB, Knowlton AA, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Yamoah EN, Chiamvimonvat N. Functional interaction with filamin A and intracellular Ca2+ enhance the surface membrane expression of a small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK2) channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 08; 111(27):9989-94. PMID: 24951510.
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    16. Knowlton AA, Chen L, Malik ZA. Heart failure and mitochondrial dysfunction: the role of mitochondrial fission/fusion abnormalities and new therapeutic strategies. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2014 Mar; 63(3):196-206. PMID: 23884159.
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    17. Liu T, Chen L, Kim E, Tran D, Phinney BS, Knowlton AA. Mitochondrial proteome remodeling in ischemic heart failure. Life Sci. 2014 Apr 17; 101(1-2):27-36. PMID: 24548633.
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    18. Lin L, Knowlton AA. Innate immunity and cardiomyocytes in ischemic heart disease. Life Sci. 2014 Mar 28; 100(1):1-8. PMID: 24486305.
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    19. Knowlton AA, Korzick DH. Estrogen and the female heart. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014 May 25; 389(1-2):31-9. PMID: 24462775.
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    20. Yang Y, Guo T, Oda T, Chakraborty A, Chen L, Uchinoumi H, Knowlton AA, Fruen BR, Cornea RL, Meissner G, Bers DM. Cardiac myocyte Z-line calmodulin is mainly RyR2-bound, and reduction is arrhythmogenic and occurs in heart failure. Circ Res. 2014 Jan 17; 114(2):295-306. PMID: 24186966.
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    21. Lee AR, Pechenino AS, Dong H, Hammock BD, Knowlton AA. Aging, estrogen loss and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e70719. PMID: 23967089.
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    22. Knowlton AA, Rainwater JA, Chiamvimonvat N, Bonham AC, Robbins JA, Henderson S, Meyers FJ. Training the translational research teams of the future: UC Davis-HHMI Integrating Medicine into Basic Science program. Clin Transl Sci. 2013 Oct; 6(5):339-46. PMID: 24127920.
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    23. Tian J, Guo X, Liu XM, Liu L, Weng QF, Dong SJ, Knowlton AA, Yuan WJ, Lin L. Extracellular HSP60 induces inflammation through activating and up-regulating TLRs in cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2013 Jun 01; 98(3):391-401. PMID: 23447644.
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    24. Malik ZA, Kott KS, Poe AJ, Kuo T, Chen L, Ferrara KW, Knowlton AA. Cardiac myocyte exosomes: stability, HSP60, and proteomics. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Apr 01; 304(7):H954-65. PMID: 23376832.
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    25. Chen L, Liu T, Tran A, Lu X, Tomilov AA, Davies V, Cortopassi G, Chiamvimonvat N, Bers DM, Votruba M, Knowlton AA. OPA1 mutation and late-onset cardiomyopathy: mitochondrial dysfunction and mtDNA instability. J Am Heart Assoc. 2012 Oct; 1(5):e003012. PMID: 23316298.
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    26. Blasi C, Kim E, Knowlton AA. Improved Metabolic Control in Diabetes, HSP60, and Proinflammatory Mediators. Autoimmune Dis. 2012; 2012:346501. PMID: 22924123.
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    27. Sun C, Alkhoury K, Wang YI, Foster GA, Radecke CE, Tam K, Edwards CM, Facciotti MT, Armstrong EJ, Knowlton AA, Newman JW, Passerini AG, Simon SI. IRF-1 and miRNA126 modulate VCAM-1 expression in response to a high-fat meal. Circ Res. 2012 Sep 28; 111(8):1054-64. PMID: 22874466.
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    28. Stice JP, Mbai FN, Chen L, Knowlton AA. Rapid activation of nuclear factor ?B by 17ß-estradiol and selective estrogen receptor modulators: pathways mediating cellular protection. Shock. 2012 Aug; 38(2):128-36. PMID: 22683727.
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    29. Knowlton AA, Lee AR. Estrogen and the cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jul; 135(1):54-70. PMID: 22484805.
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    30. Knowlton AA, Chen L. Regulating a uniter: control of mitofusin 2 expression. Cardiovasc Res. 2012 Apr 01; 94(1):6-7. PMID: 22362816.
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    31. Despa S, Margulies KB, Chen L, Knowlton AA, Havel PJ, Taegtmeyer H, Bers DM, Despa F. Hyperamylinemia contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes: a study in humans and rats. Circ Res. 2012 Feb 17; 110(4):598-608. PMID: 22275486.
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    32. Knowlton AA. Estrogen and cardiovascular disease: aging and estrogen loss at the heart of the matter? Future Cardiol. 2012 Jan; 8(1):9-12. PMID: 22185441.
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    33. Chen L, Knowlton AA. Mitochondrial dynamics in heart failure. Congest Heart Fail. 2011 Nov-Dec; 17(6):257-61. PMID: 22848903.
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    34. Das S, Mukherjee S, Lekli I, Gurusamy N, Bardhan J, Raychoudhury U, Chakravarty R, Banerji S, Knowlton AA, Das DK. Tocotrienols confer resistance to ischemia in hypercholesterolemic hearts: insight with genomics. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Jan; 360(1-2):35-45. PMID: 21918828.
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    35. Pechenino AS, Lin L, Mbai FN, Lee AR, He XM, Stallone JN, Knowlton AA. Impact of aging vs. estrogen loss on cardiac gene expression: estrogen replacement and inflammation. Physiol Genomics. 2011 Sep 22; 43(18):1065-73. PMID: 21750230.
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    36. Kobba S, Kim SC, Chen L, Kim E, Tran AL, Knuefermann P, Knowlton AA. The heat shock paradox and cardiac myocytes: role of heat shock factor. Shock. 2011 May; 35(5):478-84. PMID: 21192280.
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    37. Stice JP, Chen L, Kim SC, Jung JS, Tran AL, Liu TT, Knowlton AA. 17ß-Estradiol, aging, inflammation, and the stress response in the female heart. Endocrinology. 2011 Apr; 152(4):1589-98. PMID: 21303943.
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    38. Gower RM, Wu H, Foster GA, Devaraj S, Jialal I, Ballantyne CM, Knowlton AA, Simon SI. CD11c/CD18 expression is upregulated on blood monocytes during hypertriglyceridemia and enhances adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Jan; 31(1):160-6. PMID: 21030716.
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    39. Tuteja D, Rafizadeh S, Timofeyev V, Wang S, Zhang Z, Li N, Mateo RK, Singapuri A, Young JN, Knowlton AA, Chiamvimonvat N. Cardiac small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel subunits form heteromultimers via the coiled-coil domains in the C termini of the channels. Circ Res. 2010 Oct 01; 107(7):851-9. PMID: 20689065.
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    40. Chen L, Knowlton AA. Mitochondria and heart failure: new insights into an energetic problem. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2010 Apr; 58(2):213-29. PMID: 20440251.
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    41. Filosto S, Fry W, Knowlton AA, Goldkorn T. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) is a phosphoprotein regulated by calcineurin (PP2B). J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 02; 285(14):10213-22. PMID: 20106976.
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    42. Wang Y, Chen L, Hagiwara N, Knowlton AA. Regulation of heat shock protein 60 and 72 expression in the failing heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Feb; 48(2):360-6. PMID: 19945465.
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    43. Kim SC, Stice JP, Chen L, Jung JS, Gupta S, Wang Y, Baumgarten G, Trial J, Knowlton AA. Extracellular heat shock protein 60, cardiac myocytes, and apoptosis. Circ Res. 2009 Dec 04; 105(12):1186-95. PMID: 19875724.
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    44. Chen L, Gong Q, Stice JP, Knowlton AA. Mitochondrial OPA1, apoptosis, and heart failure. Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Oct 01; 84(1):91-9. PMID: 19493956.
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    45. Stice JP, Lee JS, Pechenino AS, Knowlton AA. Estrogen, aging and the cardiovascular system. Future Cardiol. 2009 Jan; 5(1):93-103. PMID: 19371207.
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    46. Stice JP, Eiserich JP, Knowlton AA. Role of aging versus the loss of estrogens in the reduction in vascular function in female rats. Endocrinology. 2009 Jan; 150(1):212-9. PMID: 18787021.
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    47. Stebbins CL, Stice JP, Hart CM, Mbai FN, Knowlton AA. Effects of dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on eNOS in human coronary artery endothelial cells. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Dec; 13(4):261-8. PMID: 18682551.
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    48. Stice JP, Knowlton AA. Estrogen, NFkappaB, and the heat shock response. Mol Med. 2008 Jul-Aug; 14(7-8):517-27. PMID: 18431462.
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    49. Knowlton AA, Srivatsa U. Heat-shock protein 60 and cardiovascular disease: a paradoxical role. Future Cardiol. 2008 Mar; 4(2):151-61. PMID: 19804293.
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    50. Hamilton KL, Lin L, Wang Y, Knowlton AA. Effect of ovariectomy on cardiac gene expression: inflammation and changes in SOCS gene expression. Physiol Genomics. 2008 Jan 17; 32(2):254-63. PMID: 17986523.
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    51. Lin L, Kim SC, Wang Y, Gupta S, Davis B, Simon SI, Torre-Amione G, Knowlton AA. HSP60 in heart failure: abnormal distribution and role in cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Oct; 293(4):H2238-47. PMID: 17675567.
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    52. Kim SC, Ghanem A, Stapel H, Tiemann K, Knuefermann P, Hoeft A, Meyer R, Grohé C, Knowlton AA, Baumgarten G. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency: smaller infarcts, but no gain in function. BMC Physiol. 2007 Jun 25; 7:5. PMID: 17592640.
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    53. Gupta S, Knowlton AA. HSP60 trafficking in adult cardiac myocytes: role of the exosomal pathway. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jun; 292(6):H3052-6. PMID: 17307989.
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    54. Ting HJ, Stice JP, Schaff UY, Hui DY, Rutledge JC, Knowlton AA, Passerini AG, Simon SI. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins prime aortic endothelium for an enhanced inflammatory response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Circ Res. 2007 Feb 16; 100(3):381-90. PMID: 17234968.
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    55. Lu L, Zhang Q, Timofeyev V, Zhang Z, Young JN, Shin HS, Knowlton AA, Chiamvimonvat N. Molecular coupling of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel to L-type Ca2+ channels via alpha-actinin2. Circ Res. 2007 Jan 05; 100(1):112-20. PMID: 17110593.
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    56. Knowlton AA. Life, death, the unfolded protein response and apoptosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Jan 01; 73(1):1-2. PMID: 17145049.
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    57. Baumgarten G, Knuefermann P, Schuhmacher G, Vervölgyi V, von Rappard J, Dreiner U, Fink K, Djoufack C, Hoeft A, Grohé C, Knowlton AA, Meyer R. Toll-like receptor 4, nitric oxide, and myocardial depression in endotoxemia. Shock. 2006 Jan; 25(1):43-9. PMID: 16369185.
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    58. Knowlton AA. NFkappaB, heat shock proteins, HSF-1, and inflammation. Cardiovasc Res. 2006 Jan; 69(1):7-8. PMID: 16337613.
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    59. Voss MR, Gupta S, Stice JP, Baumgarten G, Lu L, Tristan JM, Knowlton AA. Effect of mutation of amino acids 246-251 (KRKHKK) in HSP72 on protein synthesis and recovery from hypoxic injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Dec; 289(6):H2519-25. PMID: 16100242.
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    60. Mbai FN, Knowlton AA. Aging, ischemia and the heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005 Feb; 38(2):241-4. PMID: 15698830.
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    61. Gupta S, Knowlton AA. HSP60, Bax, apoptosis and the heart. J Cell Mol Med. 2005 Jan-Mar; 9(1):51-8. PMID: 15784164.
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    62. Hamilton KL, Mbai FN, Gupta S, Knowlton AA. Estrogen, heat shock proteins, and NFkappaB in human vascular endothelium. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Sep; 24(9):1628-33. PMID: 15231513.
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    63. Trial J, Rossen RD, Rubio J, Knowlton AA. Inflammation and ischemia: macrophages activated by fibronectin fragments enhance the survival of injured cardiac myocytes. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Jun; 229(6):538-45. PMID: 15169973.
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    64. Hamilton KL, Gupta S, Knowlton AA. Estrogen and regulation of heat shock protein expression in female cardiomyocytes: cross-talk with NF kappa B signaling. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004 Apr; 36(4):577-84. PMID: 15081317.
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    65. Li M, Ittmann MM, Rowley DR, Knowlton AA, Vaid AK, Epner DE. Glutathione S-transferase pi is upregulated in the stromal compartment of hormone independent prostate cancer. Prostate. 2003 Jul 01; 56(2):98-105. PMID: 12746833.
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    66. Voss MR, Stallone JN, Li M, Cornelussen RN, Knuefermann P, Knowlton AA. Gender differences in the expression of heat shock proteins: the effect of estrogen. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Aug; 285(2):H687-92. PMID: 12714326.
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    67. Bozkurt B, Agoston I, Knowlton AA. Complications of inappropriate use of spironolactone in heart failure: when an old medicine spirals out of new guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jan 15; 41(2):211-4. PMID: 12535810.
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    68. Knowlton AA, Gupta S. HSP60, Bax, and cardiac apoptosis. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2003; 3(3):263-8. PMID: 14555791.
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    69. Gupta S, Knowlton AA. Cytosolic heat shock protein 60, hypoxia, and apoptosis. Circulation. 2002 Nov 19; 106(21):2727-33. PMID: 12438300.
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    70. Cornelussen RN, Knowlton AA. Heme-oxygenase-1: versatile sentinel against injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002 Oct; 34(10):1297-1300. PMID: 12392988.
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    71. Kirchhoff SR, Gupta S, Knowlton AA. Cytosolic heat shock protein 60, apoptosis, and myocardial injury. Circulation. 2002 Jun 18; 105(24):2899-904. PMID: 12070120.
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    72. Wang YH, Knowlton AA, Li FH, Borkan SC. Hsp72 expression enhances survival in adenosine triphosphate-depleted renal epithelial cells. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2002 Apr; 7(2):137-45. PMID: 12380681.
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    73. Cornelussen RN, van Nieuwenhoven FA, Snoeckx LH, Knowlton AA. Presence of heat shock protein 72 in cardiomyocytes after heat stress. Circulation. 2001 Nov 27; 104(22):E123. PMID: 11723036.
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    74. Howell MD, Geraci JM, Knowlton AA. Congestive heart failure and outpatient risk of venous thromboembolism: a retrospective, case-control study. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001 Aug; 54(8):810-6. PMID: 11470390.
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    75. Cornelussen RN, Gupta S, Knowlton AA. Regulation of prostaglandin A1-induced heat shock protein expression in isolated cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2001 Aug; 33(8):1447-54. PMID: 11448133.
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    76. Chang J, Wasser JS, Cornelussen RN, Knowlton AA. Activation of heat-shock factor by stretch-activated channels in rat hearts. Circulation. 2001 Jul 10; 104(2):209-14. PMID: 11447088.
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    77. Knowlton AA. Mutation of amino acids 566-572 (KKKVLDK) inhibits nuclear accumulation of heat shock protein 72 after heat shock. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2001 Jan; 33(1):49-55. PMID: 11133222.
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    78. Chang J, Knowlton AA, Xu F, Wasser JS. Activation of the heat shock response: relationship to energy metabolites. A (31)P NMR study in rat hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Jan; 280(1):H426-33. PMID: 11123260.
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    79. Knowlton AA, Sun L. Heat-shock factor-1, steroid hormones, and regulation of heat-shock protein expression in the heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Jan; 280(1):H455-64. PMID: 11123263.
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    80. Geraci JM, Knowlton AA. Spironolactone for heart failure: spiraling out of control. Chest. 2000 Dec; 118(6):1522-3. PMID: 11115427.
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    81. Knowlton AA, Grenier M, Kirchhoff SR, Salfity M. Phosphorylation at tyrosine-524 influences nuclear accumulation of HSP72 with heat stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Jun; 278(6):H2143-9. PMID: 10843914.
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    82. Sun L, Chang J, Kirchhoff SR, Knowlton AA. Activation of HSF and selective increase in heat-shock proteins by acute dexamethasone treatment. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Apr; 278(4):H1091-7. PMID: 10749702.
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    83. Chang J, Knowlton AA, Wasser JS. Expression of heat shock proteins in turtle and mammal hearts: relationship to anoxia tolerance. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000 Jan; 278(1):R209-14. PMID: 10644641.
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    84. Wang Y, Knowlton AA, Christensen TG, Shih T, Borkan SC. Prior heat stress inhibits apoptosis in adenosine triphosphate-depleted renal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 1999 Jun; 55(6):2224-35. PMID: 10354271.
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    85. Knowlton AA. Mutation of amino acids 246-251 alters nuclear accumulation of human heat shock protein (HSP) 72 with stress, but does not reduce viability. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999 Mar; 31(3):523-32. PMID: 10198184.
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    86. Nakano M, Knowlton AA, Dibbs Z, Mann DL. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha confers resistance to hypoxic injury in the adult mammalian cardiac myocyte. Circulation. 1998 Apr 14; 97(14):1392-400. PMID: 9577951.
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    87. Knowlton AA, Kapadia S, Torre-Amione G, Durand JB, Bies R, Young J, Mann DL. Differential expression of heat shock proteins in normal and failing human hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998 Apr; 30(4):811-8. PMID: 9602430.
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    88. Nakano M, Mann DL, Knowlton AA. Blocking the endogenous increase in HSP 72 increases susceptibility to hypoxia and reoxygenation in isolated adult feline cardiocytes. Circulation. 1997 Mar 18; 95(6):1523-31. PMID: 9118521.
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    89. Nakano M, Knowlton AA, Yokoyama T, Lesslauer W, Mann DL. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced expression of heat shock protein 72 in adult feline cardiac myocytes. Am J Physiol. 1996 Apr; 270(4 Pt 2):H1231-9. PMID: 8967361.
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    90. Knowlton AA. The role of heat shock proteins in the heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1995 Jan; 27(1):121-31. PMID: 7760337.
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    91. Knowlton AA. Current concepts in transcription, translation, and the regulation of gene expression. A primer for the clinician. Chest. 1995 Jan; 107(1):241-8. PMID: 7813285.
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    92. Sun JZ, Tang XL, Knowlton AA, Park SW, Qiu Y, Bolli R. Late preconditioning against myocardial stunning. An endogenous protective mechanism that confers resistance to postischemic dysfunction 24 h after brief ischemia in conscious pigs. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jan; 95(1):388-403. PMID: 7814639.
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    93. Knowlton AA. Heat-shock proteins, stress, and the heart. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Jun 17; 723:128-37. PMID: 8030860.
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    94. Knowlton AA, Connelly CM, Romo GM, Mamuya W, Apstein CS, Brecher P. Rapid expression of fibronectin in the rabbit heart after myocardial infarction with and without reperfusion. J Clin Invest. 1992 Apr; 89(4):1060-8. PMID: 1556175.
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    95. Knowlton AA, Eberli FR, Brecher P, Romo GM, Owen A, Apstein CS. A single myocardial stretch or decreased systolic fiber shortening stimulates the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the isolated, erythrocyte-perfused rabbit heart. J Clin Invest. 1991 Dec; 88(6):2018-25. PMID: 1752959.
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    96. Knowlton AA, Brecher P, Apstein CS. Rapid expression of heat shock protein in the rabbit after brief cardiac ischemia. J Clin Invest. 1991 Jan; 87(1):139-47. PMID: 1985091.
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    97. Knowlton AA, Falk RH. Paradoxical increase in heart rate before conversion to sinus rhythm in patients with recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 1990 Apr 01; 65(13):930-2. PMID: 2321547.
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    98. Knowlton AA, Burrier RE, Brecher P. Rabbit heart fatty acid-binding protein. Isolation, characterization, and application of a monoclonal antibody. Circ Res. 1989 Oct; 65(4):981-8. PMID: 2791232.
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    99. Knowlton AA, Apstein CS, Saouf R, Brecher P. Leakage of heart fatty acid binding protein with ischemia and reperfusion in the rat. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1989 Jun; 21(6):577-83. PMID: 2778809.
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    100. Acute rhabdomyolysis associated with cocaine intoxication. N Engl J Med. 1989 Mar 09; 320(10):667-8. PMID: 2918879.
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    101. Wiegers SE, Plehn JF, Rajail-Khorasani A, Knowlton AA. Purulent pericarditis and ventricular pseudoaneurysm in an intravenous drug abuser. Am Heart J. 1988 Dec; 116(6 Pt 1):1635-7. PMID: 3195447.
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    102. Falk RH, Knowlton AA, Battinelli NJ. The effect of propranolol and verapamil on external pacing threshold: a placebo-controlled study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1988 Oct; 11(10):1439-43. PMID: 2462221.
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    103. Falk RH, Knowlton AA, Manaker S. Verapamil-induced atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 1988 Mar 10; 318(10):640-1. PMID: 3344011.
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    104. Falk RH, Knowlton AA, Bernard SA, Gotlieb NE, Battinelli NJ. Digoxin for converting recent-onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. A randomized, double-blinded trial. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Apr; 106(4):503-6. PMID: 3548521.
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    105. Falk RH, Knowlton AA. Atypical ventricular tachycardia or motion artifact? Am J Cardiol. 1987 Apr 01; 59(8):924. PMID: 3825957.
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    106. Knowlton AA, Falk RH. External cardiac pacing during in-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol. 1986 Jun 01; 57(15):1295-8. PMID: 3717028.
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