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Edward N Pugh Jr

Title(s)Professor, Cell Biology and Human Anatomy
SchoolUniversity of California, Davis
Phone530-752-1468
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Translocation of soluble proteins in rod photoreceptors
    NIH/NEI R01EY016453Jun 1, 2005 - May 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Nanomedicine:Supra-molecular cellular compartments (RMI)
    NIH/NEI PN1EY016555Sep 30, 2004 - Mar 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHENOTYPING THE MOUSE VISUAL SYSTEM
    NIH/NEI R01EY013074Sep 7, 2000 - Aug 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    POLARIZATION CONTRAST: A NEW KIND OF VERTEBRATE VISION
    NIH/NEI R01EY008206Jul 1, 1989 - Jun 30, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Visual Transduction
    NIH/NEI R01EY002660Aug 1, 1978 - Feb 28, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Zhang P, Miller EB, Manna SK, Meleppat RK, Pugh EN, Zawadzki RJ. Temporal speckle-averaging of optical coherence tomography volumes for in-vivo cellular resolution neuronal and vascular retinal imaging. Neurophotonics. 2019 Oct; 6(4):041105. PMID: 31528657.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Miller EB, Zhang P, Ching K, Pugh EN, Burns ME. In vivo imaging reveals transient microglia recruitment and functional recovery of photoreceptor signaling after injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jul 26. PMID: 31350349.
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    3. Pugh EN. The mechanism of photon-like dark noise in rod photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 2019 Jul 01; 151(7):875-877. PMID: 31171571.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Meleppat RK, Zhang P, Ju MJ, Manna SK, Jian Y, Pugh EN, Zawadzki RJ. Directional optical coherence tomography reveals melanin concentration-dependent scattering properties of retinal pigment epithelium. J Biomed Opt. 2019 Jun; 24(6):1-10. PMID: 31254332.
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    5. Zhang P, Manna SK, Miller EB, Jian Y, Meleppat RK, Sarunic MV, Pugh EN, Zawadzki RJ. Aperture phase modulation with adaptive optics: a novel approach for speckle reduction and structure extraction in optical coherence tomography. Biomed Opt Express. 2019 Feb 01; 10(2):552-570. PMID: 30800499.
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    6. Goswami M, Wang X, Zhang P, Xiao W, Karlen SJ, Li Y, Zawadzki RJ, Burns ME, Lam KS, Pugh EN. Novel window for cancer nanotheranostics: non-invasive ocular assessments of tumor growth and nanotherapeutic treatment efficacy in vivo. Biomed Opt Express. 2019 Jan 01; 10(1):151-166. PMID: 30775090.
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    7. Zhang P, Mocci J, Wahl DJ, Meleppat RK, Manna SK, Quintavalla M, Muradore R, Sarunic MV, Bonora S, Pugh EN, Zawadzki RJ. Effect of a contact lens on mouse retinal in vivo imaging: Effective focal length changes and monochromatic aberrations. Exp Eye Res. 2018 07; 172:86-93. PMID: 29604280.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ronning KE, Allina GP, Miller EB, Zawadzki RJ, Pugh EN, Herrmann R, Burns ME. Loss of cone function without degeneration in a novel Gnat2 knock-out mouse. Exp Eye Res. 2018 06; 171:111-118. PMID: 29518352.
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    9. Pugh EN. The discovery of the ability of rod photoreceptors to signal single photons. J Gen Physiol. 2018 03 05; 150(3):383-388. PMID: 29467164.
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    10. Lu CD, Lee B, Schottenhamml J, Maier A, Pugh EN, Fujimoto JG. Photoreceptor Layer Thickness Changes During Dark Adaptation Observed With Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 09 01; 58(11):4632-4643. PMID: 28898357.
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    11. Wang X, Miller EB, Goswami M, Zhang P, Ronning KE, Karlen SJ, Zawadzki RJ, Pugh EN, Burns ME. Rapid monocyte infiltration following retinal detachment is dependent on non-canonical IL6 signaling through gp130. J Neuroinflammation. 2017 06 23; 14(1):121. PMID: 28645275.
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    12. Zhang P, Zawadzki RJ, Goswami M, Nguyen PT, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Burns ME, Pugh EN. In vivo optophysiology reveals that G-protein activation triggers osmotic swelling and increased light scattering of rod photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 04 04; 114(14):E2937-E2946. PMID: 28320964.
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    13. Peinado Allina G, Fortenbach C, Naarendorp F, Gross OP, Pugh EN, Burns ME. Bright flash response recovery of mammalian rods in vivo is rate limited by RGS9. J Gen Physiol. 2017 Apr 03; 149(4):443-454. PMID: 28302678.
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    14. Zhang P, Goswami M, Zawadzki RJ, Pugh EN. The Photosensitivity of Rhodopsin Bleaching and Light-Induced Increases of Fundus Reflectance in Mice Measured In Vivo With Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 07 01; 57(8):3650-64. PMID: 27403994.
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    15. Burns ME, Levine ES, Miller EB, Zam A, Zhang P, Zawadzki RJ, Pugh EN. New Developments in Murine Imaging for Assessing Photoreceptor Degeneration In Vivo. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 854:269-75. PMID: 26427421.
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    16. Zhang P, Goswami M, Zam A, Pugh EN, Zawadzki RJ. Effect of scanning beam size on the lateral resolution of mouse retinal imaging with SLO. Opt Lett. 2015 Dec 15; 40(24):5830-3. PMID: 26670523.
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    17. Pugh EN. Photoreceptor disc morphogenesis: The classical evagination model prevails. J Cell Biol. 2015 Nov 09; 211(3):491-3. PMID: 26527745.
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    18. Bonora S, Jian Y, Zhang P, Zam A, Pugh EN, Zawadzki RJ, Sarunic MV. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens. Opt Express. 2015 Aug 24; 23(17):21931-41. PMID: 26368169.
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    19. Zawadzki RJ, Zhang P, Zam A, Miller EB, Goswami M, Wang X, Jonnal RS, Lee SH, Kim DY, Flannery JG, Werner JS, Burns ME, Pugh EN. Adaptive-optics SLO imaging combined with widefield OCT and SLO enables precise 3D localization of fluorescent cells in the mouse retina. Biomed Opt Express. 2015 Jun 01; 6(6):2191-210. PMID: 26114038.
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    20. Gross OP, Pugh EN, Burns ME. cGMP in mouse rods: the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying single photon responses. Front Mol Neurosci. 2015; 8:6. PMID: 25788876.
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    21. Zhang P, Zam A, Jian Y, Wang X, Li Y, Lam KS, Burns ME, Sarunic MV, Pugh EN, Zawadzki RJ. In vivo wide-field multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscopy-optical coherence tomography mouse retinal imager: longitudinal imaging of ganglion cells, microglia, and Müller glia, and mapping of the mouse retinal and choroidal vasculature. J Biomed Opt. 2015; 20(12):126005. PMID: 26677070.
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    22. Zhang T, Enemchukwu NO, Jones A, Wang S, Dennis E, Watt CB, Pugh EN, Fu Y. Genetic deletion of S-opsin prevents rapid cone degeneration in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2015 Mar 15; 24(6):1755-63. PMID: 25416279.
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    23. Levine ES, Zam A, Zhang P, Pechko A, Wang X, FitzGerald P, Pugh EN, Zawadzki RJ, Burns ME. Rapid light-induced activation of retinal microglia in mice lacking Arrestin-1. Vision Res. 2014 Sep; 102:71-9. PMID: 25091460.
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    24. Kessler C, Tillman M, Burns ME, Pugh EN. Rhodopsin in the rod surface membrane regenerates more rapidly than bulk rhodopsin in the disc membranes in vivo. J Physiol. 2014 Jul 01; 592(13):2785-97. PMID: 24801306.
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    25. Haeri M, Calvert PD, Solessio E, Pugh EN, Knox BE. Regulation of rhodopsin-eGFP distribution in transgenic xenopus rod outer segments by light. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80059. PMID: 24260336.
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    26. Pugh EN, Gordon SE. Embracing the principles of the San Francisco Declaration of Research Assessment: Robert Balaban's editorial. J Gen Physiol. 2013 Sep; 142(3):175. PMID: 23980189.
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    27. Zawadzki R, Pugh EN. Spotlight summary: quantitative fundus autofluorescence and A2E increase with aging in wild-type and "Stargardt" mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr 23; 54(4):2991. PMID: 23612484.
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    28. Nikonov SS, Lyubarsky A, Fina ME, Nikonova ES, Sengupta A, Chinniah C, Ding XQ, Smith RG, Pugh EN, Vardi N, Dhingra A. Cones respond to light in the absence of transducin ß subunit. J Neurosci. 2013 Mar 20; 33(12):5182-94. PMID: 23516284.
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    29. Morgan JI, Pugh EN. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope measurement of local fundus reflectance and autofluorescence changes arising from rhodopsin bleaching and regeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Mar 01; 54(3):2048-59. PMID: 23412087.
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    30. Pugh EN. Introducing the viewpoint. J Gen Physiol. 2012 Dec; 140(6):579. PMID: 23183691.
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    31. Gross OP, Pugh EN, Burns ME. Calcium feedback to cGMP synthesis strongly attenuates single-photon responses driven by long rhodopsin lifetimes. Neuron. 2012 Oct 18; 76(2):370-82. PMID: 23083739.
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    32. Insinna C, Daniele LL, Davis JA, Larsen DD, Kuemmel C, Wang J, Nikonov SS, Knox BE, Pugh EN. An S-opsin knock-in mouse (F81Y) reveals a role for the native ligand 11-cis-retinal in cone opsin biosynthesis. J Neurosci. 2012 Jun 06; 32(23):8094-104. PMID: 22674284.
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    33. Sheu SS, Dirksen RT, Pugh EN. Perspectives on: SGP symposium on mitochondrial physiology and medicine: mitochondria take center stage. J Gen Physiol. 2012 Jun; 139(6):391-3. PMID: 22641633.
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    34. Gross OP, Pugh EN, Burns ME. Spatiotemporal cGMP dynamics in living mouse rods. Biophys J. 2012 Apr 18; 102(8):1775-84. PMID: 22768933.
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    35. Sheu SS, Dirksen RT, Pugh EN. The 65th Symposium of the Society for General Physiologists: energizing research in mitochondrial physiology and medicine. J Gen Physiol. 2011 Dec; 138(6):563-7. PMID: 22124113.
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    36. Pugh EN. Redefining our menu: communications and reviews. J Gen Physiol. 2011 Aug; 138(2):131. PMID: 21788608.
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    37. Ellis-Davies GC, Pugh EN. The 64th Symposium of the Society for General Physiologists: optogenetics and superresolution microscopy take center stage. J Gen Physiol. 2011 Jul; 138(1):1-11. PMID: 21708951.
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    38. Pugh EN. Good scientists do reach and hold divergent views on important issues. J Gen Physiol. 2011 Mar; 137(3):253. PMID: 21357731.
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    39. Daniele LL, Insinna C, Chance R, Wang J, Nikonov SS, Pugh EN. A mouse M-opsin monochromat: retinal cone photoreceptors have increased M-opsin expression when S-opsin is knocked out. Vision Res. 2011 Feb 23; 51(4):447-58. PMID: 21219924.
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    40. Pugh EN. We were there... J Gen Physiol. 2010 Nov; 136(5):495. PMID: 20974770.
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    41. Naarendorp F, Esdaille TM, Banden SM, Andrews-Labenski J, Gross OP, Pugh EN. Dark light, rod saturation, and the absolute and incremental sensitivity of mouse cone vision. J Neurosci. 2010 Sep 15; 30(37):12495-507. PMID: 20844144.
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    42. Dirksen RT, Pugh EN. Emerging questions about the macromolecular machines of muscle. J Gen Physiol. 2010 Jul; 136(1):3-5. PMID: 20584886.
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    43. Burns ME, Pugh EN. Lessons from photoreceptors: turning off g-protein signaling in living cells. Physiology (Bethesda). 2010 Apr; 25(2):72-84. PMID: 20430952.
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    44. Ng L, Lyubarsky A, Nikonov SS, Ma M, Srinivas M, Kefas B, St Germain DL, Hernandez A, Pugh EN, Forrest D. Type 3 deiodinase, a thyroid-hormone-inactivating enzyme, controls survival and maturation of cone photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2010 Mar 03; 30(9):3347-57. PMID: 20203194.
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    45. Calvert PD, Schiesser WE, Pugh EN. Diffusion of a soluble protein, photoactivatable GFP, through a sensory cilium. J Gen Physiol. 2010 Mar; 135(3):173-96. PMID: 20176852.
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    46. Pugh EN. Enlisting young physiologists. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Dec; 134(6):451-2. PMID: 19948996.
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    47. Burns ME, Pugh EN. RGS9 concentration matters in rod phototransduction. Biophys J. 2009 Sep 16; 97(6):1538-47. PMID: 19751658.
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    48. Parry DA, Toomes C, Bida L, Danciger M, Towns KV, McKibbin M, Jacobson SG, Logan CV, Ali M, Bond J, Chance R, Swendeman S, Daniele LL, Springell K, Adams M, Johnson CA, Booth AP, Jafri H, Rashid Y, Banin E, Strom TM, Farber DB, Sharon D, Blobel CP, Pugh EN, Pierce EA, Inglehearn CF. Loss of the metalloprotease ADAM9 leads to cone-rod dystrophy in humans and retinal degeneration in mice. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 May; 84(5):683-91. PMID: 19409519.
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    49. Pugh EN. Kudos to reviewers for the JGP: you make our science better. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Feb; 133(2):129-30. PMID: 19171768.
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    50. Nikonov SS, Brown BM, Davis JA, Zuniga FI, Bragin A, Pugh EN, Craft CM. Mouse cones require an arrestin for normal inactivation of phototransduction. Neuron. 2008 Aug 14; 59(3):462-74. PMID: 18701071.
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    51. Daniele LL, Sauer B, Gallagher SM, Pugh EN, Philp NJ. Altered visual function in monocarboxylate transporter 3 (Slc16a8) knockout mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008 Aug; 295(2):C451-7. PMID: 18524945.
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    52. Pugh EN, Andersen OS. Models and mechanistic insight. J Gen Physiol. 2008 Jun; 131(6):515-9. PMID: 18504312.
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    53. Maguire AM, Simonelli F, Pierce EA, Pugh EN, Mingozzi F, Bennicelli J, Banfi S, Marshall KA, Testa F, Surace EM, Rossi S, Lyubarsky A, Arruda VR, Konkle B, Stone E, Sun J, Jacobs J, Dell'Osso L, Hertle R, Ma JX, Redmond TM, Zhu X, Hauck B, Zelenaia O, Shindler KS, Maguire MG, Wright JF, Volpe NJ, McDonnell JW, Auricchio A, High KA, Bennett J. Safety and efficacy of gene transfer for Leber's congenital amaurosis. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 22; 358(21):2240-8. PMID: 18441370.
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    54. Feathers KL, Lyubarsky AL, Khan NW, Teofilo K, Swaroop A, Williams DS, Pugh EN, Thompson DA. Nrl-knockout mice deficient in Rpe65 fail to synthesize 11-cis retinal and cone outer segments. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Mar; 49(3):1126-35. PMID: 18326740.
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    55. Lamb TD, Collin SP, Pugh EN. Evolution of the vertebrate eye: opsins, photoreceptors, retina and eye cup. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007 Dec; 8(12):960-76. PMID: 18026166.
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    56. Daniele LL, Adams RH, Durante DE, Pugh EN, Philp NJ. Novel distribution of junctional adhesion molecule-C in the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Nov 10; 505(2):166-76. PMID: 17853450.
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    57. Liu Q, Tan G, Levenkova N, Li T, Pugh EN, Rux JJ, Speicher DW, Pierce EA. The proteome of the mouse photoreceptor sensory cilium complex. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007 Aug; 6(8):1299-317. PMID: 17494944.
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    58. Calvert PD, Peet JA, Bragin A, Schiesser WE, Pugh EN. Fluorescence relaxation in 3D from diffraction-limited sources of PAGFP or sinks of EGFP created by multiphoton photoconversion. J Microsc. 2007 Jan; 225(Pt 1):49-71. PMID: 17286695.
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    59. Lamb TD, Pugh EN. Phototransduction, dark adaptation, and rhodopsin regeneration the proctor lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Dec; 47(12):5137-52. PMID: 17122096.
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    60. Calvert PD, Strissel KJ, Schiesser WE, Pugh EN, Arshavsky VY. Light-driven translocation of signaling proteins in vertebrate photoreceptors. Trends Cell Biol. 2006 Nov; 16(11):560-8. PMID: 16996267.
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    61. Lin SS, Yemelyanov KM, Pugh EN, Engheta N. Polarization-based and specular-reflection-based noncontact latent fingerprint imaging and lifting. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2006 Sep; 23(9):2137-53. PMID: 16912740.
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    62. Pugh EN. RGS expression level precisely regulates the duration of rod photoresponses. Neuron. 2006 Aug 17; 51(4):391-3. PMID: 16908403.
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    63. Lin SS, Yemelyanov KM, Pugh EN, Engheta N. Separation and contrast enhancement of overlapping cast shadow components using polarization. Opt Express. 2006 Aug 07; 14(16):7099-108. PMID: 19529081.
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    64. Yemelyanov KM, Lin SS, Pugh EN, Engheta N. Adaptive algorithms for two-channel polarization sensing under various polarization statistics with nonuniform distributions. Appl Opt. 2006 Aug 01; 45(22):5504-20. PMID: 16855649.
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    65. Nikonov SS, Kholodenko R, Lem J, Pugh EN. Physiological features of the S- and M-cone photoreceptors of wild-type mice from single-cell recordings. J Gen Physiol. 2006 Apr; 127(4):359-74. PMID: 16567464.
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    66. Rex TS, Peet JA, Surace EM, Calvert PD, Nikonov SS, Lyubarsky AL, Bendo E, Hughes T, Pugh EN, Bennett J. The distribution, concentration, and toxicity of enhanced green fluorescent protein in retinal cells after genomic or somatic (virus-mediated) gene transfer. Mol Vis. 2005 Dec 30; 11:1236-45. PMID: 16402024.
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    67. Pugh EN, Baehr W, Zrenner E. Neuroimaging the retina. Vision Res. 2005 Dec; 45(28):3431. PMID: 16289207.
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    68. Lyubarsky AL, Savchenko AB, Morocco SB, Daniele LL, Redmond TM, Pugh EN. Mole quantity of RPE65 and its productivity in the generation of 11-cis-retinal from retinyl esters in the living mouse eye. Biochemistry. 2005 Jul 26; 44(29):9880-8. PMID: 16026160.
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    69. Wenzel A, Oberhauser V, Pugh EN, Lamb TD, Grimm C, Samardzija M, Fahl E, Seeliger MW, Remé CE, von Lintig J. The retinal G protein-coupled receptor (RGR) enhances isomerohydrolase activity independent of light. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 19; 280(33):29874-84. PMID: 15961402.
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    70. Daniele LL, Lillo C, Lyubarsky AL, Nikonov SS, Philp N, Mears AJ, Swaroop A, Williams DS, Pugh EN. Cone-like morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological features of the photoreceptors of the Nrl knockout mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Jun; 46(6):2156-67. PMID: 15914637.
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    71. Nikonov SS, Daniele LL, Zhu X, Craft CM, Swaroop A, Pugh EN. Photoreceptors of Nrl -/- mice coexpress functional S- and M-cone opsins having distinct inactivation mechanisms. J Gen Physiol. 2005 Mar; 125(3):287-304. PMID: 15738050.
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    72. Lyubarsky AL, Daniele LL, Pugh EN. From candelas to photoisomerizations in the mouse eye by rhodopsin bleaching in situ and the light-rearing dependence of the major components of the mouse ERG. Vision Res. 2004 Dec; 44(28):3235-51. PMID: 15535992.
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    73. Hahn P, Lindsten T, Lyubarsky A, Ying GS, Pugh EN, Thompson CB, Dunaief JL. Deficiency of Bax and Bak protects photoreceptors from light damage in vivo. Cell Death Differ. 2004 Nov; 11(11):1192-7. PMID: 15272317.
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    74. Peet JA, Bragin A, Calvert PD, Nikonov SS, Mani S, Zhao X, Besharse JC, Pierce EA, Knox BE, Pugh EN. Quantification of the cytoplasmic spaces of living cells with EGFP reveals arrestin-EGFP to be in disequilibrium in dark adapted rod photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2004 Jun 15; 117(Pt 14):3049-59. PMID: 15197244.
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    75. Lamb TD, Pugh EN. Dark adaptation and the retinoid cycle of vision. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2004 May; 23(3):307-80. PMID: 15177205.
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    76. Dejneka NS, Surace EM, Aleman TS, Cideciyan AV, Lyubarsky A, Savchenko A, Redmond TM, Tang W, Wei Z, Rex TS, Glover E, Maguire AM, Pugh EN, Jacobson SG, Bennett J. In utero gene therapy rescues vision in a murine model of congenital blindness. Mol Ther. 2004 Feb; 9(2):182-8. PMID: 14759802.
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    77. Liu Q, Lyubarsky A, Skalet JH, Pugh EN, Pierce EA. RP1 is required for the correct stacking of outer segment discs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Oct; 44(10):4171-83. PMID: 14507858.
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    78. Surace EM, Auricchio A, Reich SJ, Rex T, Glover E, Pineles S, Tang W, O'Connor E, Lyubarsky A, Savchenko A, Pugh EN, Maguire AM, Wilson JM, Bennett J. Delivery of adeno-associated virus vectors to the fetal retina: impact of viral capsid proteins on retinal neuronal progenitor transduction. J Virol. 2003 Jul; 77(14):7957-63. PMID: 12829835.
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    79. Yemelyanov K, Lo M, Pugh E, Engheta N. Display of polarization information by coherently moving dots. Opt Express. 2003 Jun 30; 11(13):1577-84. PMID: 19466033.
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    80. Demb JB, Pugh EN. Connexin36 forms synapses essential for night vision. Neuron. 2002 Nov 14; 36(4):551-3. PMID: 12441044.
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    81. Sokolov M, Lyubarsky AL, Strissel KJ, Savchenko AB, Govardovskii VI, Pugh EN, Arshavsky VY. Massive light-driven translocation of transducin between the two major compartments of rod cells: a novel mechanism of light adaptation. Neuron. 2002 Mar 28; 34(1):95-106. PMID: 11931744.
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    82. Lyubarsky AL, Lem J, Chen J, Falsini B, Iannaccone A, Pugh EN. Functionally rodless mice: transgenic models for the investigation of cone function in retinal disease and therapy. Vision Res. 2002 Feb; 42(4):401-15. PMID: 11853756.
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    83. Arshavsky VY, Lamb TD, Pugh EN. G proteins and phototransduction. Annu Rev Physiol. 2002; 64:153-87. PMID: 11826267.
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    84. Rattner A, Smallwood PM, Williams J, Cooke C, Savchenko A, Lyubarsky A, Pugh EN, Nathans J. A photoreceptor-specific cadherin is essential for the structural integrity of the outer segment and for photoreceptor survival. Neuron. 2001 Dec 06; 32(5):775-86. PMID: 11738025.
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    85. Pugh EN. Rods are rods and cones cones, and (never) the twain shall meet. Neuron. 2001 Nov 08; 32(3):375-6. PMID: 11709146.
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    86. Lyubarsky AL, Naarendorp F, Zhang X, Wensel T, Simon MI, Pugh EN. RGS9-1 is required for normal inactivation of mouse cone phototransduction. Mol Vis. 2001 Mar 20; 7:71-8. PMID: 11262419.
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    87. Dhingra A, Lyubarsky A, Jiang M, Pugh EN, Birnbaumer L, Sterling P, Vardi N. The light response of ON bipolar neurons requires G[alpha]o. J Neurosci. 2000 Dec 15; 20(24):9053-8. PMID: 11124982.
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    88. Calvert PD, Krasnoperova NV, Lyubarsky AL, Isayama T, Nicoló M, Kosaras B, Wong G, Gannon KS, Margolskee RF, Sidman RL, Pugh EN, Makino CL, Lem J. Phototransduction in transgenic mice after targeted deletion of the rod transducin alpha -subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 12 05; 97(25):13913-8. PMID: 11095744.
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    89. Nikonov S, Lamb TD, Pugh EN. The role of steady phosphodiesterase activity in the kinetics and sensitivity of the light-adapted salamander rod photoresponse. J Gen Physiol. 2000 Dec; 116(6):795-824. PMID: 11099349.
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    90. Leskov IB, Klenchin VA, Handy JW, Whitlock GG, Govardovskii VI, Bownds MD, Lamb TD, Pugh EN, Arshavsky VY. The gain of rod phototransduction: reconciliation of biochemical and electrophysiological measurements. Neuron. 2000 Sep; 27(3):525-37. PMID: 11055435.
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    91. Pugh EN. Transfected cyclic nucleotide-gated channels as biosensors. J Gen Physiol. 2000 Aug; 116(2):143-5. PMID: 10919862.
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    92. Lyubarsky AL, Chen C, Simon MI, Pugh EN. Mice lacking G-protein receptor kinase 1 have profoundly slowed recovery of cone-driven retinal responses. J Neurosci. 2000 Mar 15; 20(6):2209-17. PMID: 10704496.
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    93. Pugh EN, Nikonov S, Lamb TD. Molecular mechanisms of vertebrate photoreceptor light adaptation. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999 Aug; 9(4):410-8. PMID: 10448166.
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    94. Pugh EN. Variability in single photon responses: a cut in the Gordian knot of rod phototransduction? Neuron. 1999 Jun; 23(2):205-8. PMID: 10399927.
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    95. Lyubarsky AL, Falsini B, Pennesi ME, Valentini P, Pugh EN. UV- and midwave-sensitive cone-driven retinal responses of the mouse: a possible phenotype for coexpression of cone photopigments. J Neurosci. 1999 Jan 01; 19(1):442-55. PMID: 9870972.
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    96. Pennesi ME, Lyubarsky AL, Pugh EN. Extreme responsiveness of the pupil of the dark-adapted mouse to steady retinal illumination. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Oct; 39(11):2148-56. PMID: 9761294.
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    97. Nikonov S, Engheta N, Pugh EN. Kinetics of recovery of the dark-adapted salamander rod photoresponse. J Gen Physiol. 1998 Jan; 111(1):7-37. PMID: 9417132.
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    98. Arshavsky VY, Pugh EN. Lifetime regulation of G protein-effector complex: emerging importance of RGS proteins. Neuron. 1998 Jan; 20(1):11-4. PMID: 9459437.
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    135. Mueller P, Pugh EN. Protons block the dark current of isolated retinal rods. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Apr; 80(7):1892-6. PMID: 6300877.
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    137. Liebman PA, Pugh EN. Gain, speed and sensitivity of GTP binding vs PDE activation in visual excitation. Vision Res. 1982; 22(12):1475-80. PMID: 6305023.
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    139. Sigel C, Pugh EN. Stiles's II5 color mechanism: tests of field displacement and field additivity properties. J Opt Soc Am. 1980 Jan; 70(1):71-81. PMID: 7411265.
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    140. Wandell BA, Pugh EN. Detection of long-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes by a chromatically coded pathway. Vision Res. 1980; 20(7):625-36. PMID: 7434597.
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    141. Pugh EN, Larimer J. Test of the identity of the site of blue/yellow hue cancellation and the site of chromatic antagonism in the pi 1 pathway. Vision Res. 1980; 20(9):779-88. PMID: 7456339.
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    142. Wandell BA, Pugh EN. A field-additive pathway detects brief-duration, long-wavelength incremental flashes. Vision Res. 1980; 20(7):613-24. PMID: 7434596.
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    145. Pugh EN, Sigel C. Evaluation of the candidacy of the pi-mechanisms of Stiles for color-matching fundamentals. Vision Res. 1978; 18(3):317-30. PMID: 664305.
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    146. Augenstein EJ, Pugh EN. The dynamics of the pi 1 colour mechanism: further evidence for two sites of adaptation. J Physiol. 1977 Nov; 272(2):247-81. PMID: 592192.
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    147. Alpern M, Pugh EN. Variation in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes. J Physiol. 1977 Apr; 266(3):613-46. PMID: 301186.
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    149. Alpern M, Bastian B, Pugh EN, Gras W. Altered ocular pigments, photostable and labile: two causes of deuteranomalous trichromacy. Mod Probl Ophthalmol. 1976; 17:273-91. PMID: 1085880.
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    150. Pugh EN. Rushton's paradox: rod dark adaptation after flash photolysis. J Physiol. 1975 Jun; 248(2):413-31. PMID: 1151791.
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    151. Pugh EN. Rhodopsin flash photolysis in man. J Physiol. 1975 Jun; 248(2):393-412. PMID: 1151790.
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    152. Alpern M, Pugh EN. The density and photosensitivity of human rhodopsin in the living retina. J Physiol. 1974 Mar; 237(2):341-70. PMID: 4825455.
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