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Ramsey D Badawi, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Radiology
SchoolUniversity of California, Davis
Phone916-703-2278
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    EXPLORER: Changing the Molecular Imaging Paradigm with Total Body PET
    NIH/NCI R01CA206187Sep 25, 2015 - Aug 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Enabling technologies for ultra-high sensitivity PET scanners (PQ13)
    NIH/NCI R01CA170874Aug 1, 2012 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Dedicated High-Performance Breast PET/CT
    NIH/NCI R01CA129561May 15, 2009 - Feb 28, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Nardo L, Abdelhafez YG, Acquafredda F, Schirò S, Wong AL, Sarohia D, Maroldi R, Darrow MA, Guindani M, Lee S, Zhang M, Moawad AW, Elsayes KM, Badawi RD, Link TM. Qualitative evaluation of MRI features of lipoma and atypical lipomatous tumor: results from a multicenter study. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 Jan 22. PMID: 31965239.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Zhang X, Cherry SR, Xie Z, Shi H, Badawi RD, Qi J. Subsecond total-body imaging using ultrasensitive positron emission tomography. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Jan 21. PMID: 31964808.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Zuo Y, Sarkar S, Corwin MT, Olson K, Badawi RD, Wang G. Structural and practical identifiability of dual-input kinetic modeling in dynamic PET of liver inflammation. Phys Med Biol. 2019 09 05; 64(17):175023. PMID: 31051490.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Zhang X, Xie Z, Berg E, Judenhofer MS, Liu W, Xu T, Ding Y, Lv Y, Dong Y, Deng Z, Tang S, Shi H, Hu P, Chen S, Bao J, Li H, Zhou J, Wang G, Cherry SR, Badawi RD, Qi J. Total-Body Dynamic Reconstruction and Parametric Imaging on the uEXPLORER. J Nucl Med. 2020 Feb; 61(2):285-291. PMID: 31302637.
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    5. Lv Y, Lv X, Liu W, Judenhofer MS, Zwingenberger A, Wisner E, Berg E, McKenney S, Leung E, Spencer BA, Cherry SR, Badawi RD. Mini EXPLORER II: a prototype high-sensitivity PET/CT scanner for companion animal whole body and human brain scanning. Phys Med Biol. 2019 03 21; 64(7):075004. PMID: 30620929.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Badawi RD, Shi H, Hu P, Chen S, Xu T, Price PM, Ding Y, Spencer BA, Nardo L, Liu W, Bao J, Jones T, Li H, Cherry SR. First Human Imaging Studies with the EXPLORER Total-Body PET Scanner. J Nucl Med. 2019 03; 60(3):299-303. PMID: 30733314.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Sarkar S, Corwin MT, Olson KA, Stewart SL, Liu CH, Badawi RD, Wang G. Pilot Study to Diagnose Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis With Dynamic 18F-FDG PET. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 03; 212(3):529-537. PMID: 30673340.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Benjamin Spencer, Souvik Sarkar, Kristin Olson, Michael T. Corwin, Ramsey D. Badawi, Guobao Wang. Dual-Input Kinetic Modeling in Dynamic PET: Clinical Evaluation of the Impact of Time-of-Flight Imaging. 2018 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Proceedings (NSS/MIC). 2018 Nov 1; 1-4.
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    9. Leung EK, Judenhofer MS, Cherry SR, Badawi RD. Performance assessment of a software-based coincidence processor for the EXPLORER total-body PET scanner. Phys Med Biol. 2018 09 19; 63(18):18NT01. PMID: 30152793.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Wang G, Corwin MT, Olson KA, Badawi RD, Sarkar S. Dynamic PET of human liver inflammation: impact of kinetic modeling with optimization-derived dual-blood input function. Phys Med Biol. 2018 07 24; 63(15):155004. PMID: 29847315.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Zhang X, Badawi RD, Cherry SR, Qi J. Theoretical study of the benefit of long axial field-of-view PET on region of interest quantification. Phys Med Biol. 2018 06 27; 63(13):135010. PMID: 29799814.
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    12. Chu LL, Knebel RJ, Shay AD, Santos J, Badawi RD, Gandara DR, Knollmann FD. CT perfusion imaging of lung cancer: benefit of motion correction for blood flow estimates. Eur Radiol. 2018 Dec; 28(12):5069-5075. PMID: 29869174.
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    13. Berg E, Zhang X, Bec J, Judenhofer MS, Patel B, Peng Q, Kapusta M, Schmand M, Casey ME, Tarantal AF, Qi J, Badawi RD, Cherry SR. Development and Evaluation of mini-EXPLORER: A Long Axial Field-of-View PET Scanner for Nonhuman Primate Imaging. J Nucl Med. 2018 06; 59(6):993-998. PMID: 29419483.
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    14. Foster B, Boutin RD, Lenchik L, Gedeon D, Liu Y, Nittur V, Badawi RD, Li CS, Canter RJ, Chaudhari AJ. Skeletal Muscle Metrics on Clinical 18F-FDG PET/CT Predict Health Outcomes in Patients with Sarcoma. J Nat Sci. 2018; 4(5). PMID: 29756042.
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    15. Abdelhafez YG, Hagge RJ, Badawi RD, Raychaudhuri SP, Chaudhari AJ. Early and Delayed 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT Findings in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis. Clin Nucl Med. 2017 Nov; 42(11):e480-e481. PMID: 28872556.
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    16. Godinez F, Gong K, Zhou J, Judenhofer MS, Chaudhari AJ, Badawi RD. Development of an Ultra High Resolution PET Scanner for Imaging Rodent Paws: PawPET. IEEE Trans Radiat Plasma Med Sci. 2018 Jan; 2(1):7-16. PMID: 31930184.
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    17. Cherry SR, Jones T, Karp JS, Qi J, Moses WW, Badawi RD. Total-Body PET: Maximizing Sensitivity to Create New Opportunities for Clinical Research and Patient Care. J Nucl Med. 2018 01; 59(1):3-12. PMID: 28935835.
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    18. Cherry SR, Badawi RD, Karp JS, Moses WW, Price P, Jones T. Total-body imaging: Transforming the role of positron emission tomography. Sci Transl Med. 2017 03 15; 9(381). PMID: 28298419.
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    19. Benjamin Spencer, Jinyi Qi, Ramsey D. Badawi, Guobao Wang. Dynamic PET Image reconstruction for parametric imaging using the HYPR kernel method. Proceedings of SPIE. 2017 Mar 9; 10132:101324w-101324w-7.
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    20. Zhang X, Zhou J, Cherry SR, Badawi RD, Qi J. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner. Phys Med Biol. 2017 03 21; 62(6):2465-2485. PMID: 28240215.
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    21. Abdullah A. Refaey, Martin S. Judenhofer, Ramsey D. Badawi. Characterization of 0.5-mm lutetium oxyorthosilicate detector arrays for high-resolution PET applications. 2016 Oct 1; 1-3.
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    22. Chaudhari AJ, Ferrero A, Godinez F, Yang K, Shelton DK, Hunter JC, Naguwa SM, Boone JM, Raychaudhuri SP, Badawi RD. High-resolution (18)F-FDG PET/CT for assessing disease activity in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis: findings of a prospective pilot study. Br J Radiol. 2016 Jul; 89(1063):20160138. PMID: 27109738.
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    23. Joshi AA, Leahy RM, Badawi RD, Chaudhari AJ. Registration-Based Morphometry for Shape Analysis of the Bones of the Human Wrist. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2016 Feb; 35(2):416-26. PMID: 26353369.
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    24. M.G. Buddika Sumanasena, Felipe Godinez, Martin S Judenhofer, Qiyu Peng, Ramsey D. Badawi. A Modular Hybrid PSPMT/SiPM Depth Encoding Detector for High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography. 2015 Oct 1; 1-2.
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    25. M.G. Buddika Sumanasena, Qiyu Peng, George Burkett Burkett, Andrea Ferrero, Abhijit J. Chaudhari, Ramsey D. Badawi, Felipe Godinez. A Prototype PET Scanner with Hybrid DOI-Encoding Detectors. 2015 Oct 1; 1-3.
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    26. Ferrero A, Peng Q, Burkett GW, Sumanasena B, Moses WW, Badawi RD. Preliminary performance characterization of DbPET2.1, a PET scanner dedicated to the imaging of the breast and extremities. Biomed Phys Eng Express. 2015 Jun; 1(1). PMID: 31798968.
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    27. Poon JK, Dahlbom ML, Casey ME, Qi J, Cherry SR, Badawi RD. Validation of the SimSET simulation package for modeling the Siemens Biograph mCT PET scanner. Phys Med Biol. 2015 Feb 07; 60(3):N35-45. PMID: 25586800.
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    28. Yang L, Ferrero A, Hagge RJ, Badawi RD, Qi J. Evaluation of penalty design in penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):035501. PMID: 26158072.
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    29. Zheng L, Chaudhari AJ, Badawi RD, Ma KL. Using global illumination in volume visualization of rheumatoid arthritis CT data. IEEE Comput Graph Appl. 2014 Nov-Dec; 34(6):16-23. PMID: 25388232.
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    30. Moraes ER, Poon JK, Balakrishnan K, Wang W, Badawi RD. Towards component-based validation of GATE: aspects of the coincidence processor. Phys Med. 2015 Feb; 31(1):43-8. PMID: 25240897.
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    31. Santos J, Chaudhari AJ, Joshi AA, Ferrero A, Yang K, Boone JM, Badawi RD. Non-rigid registration of serial dedicated breast CT, longitudinal dedicated breast CT and PET/CT images using the diffeomorphic demons method. Phys Med. 2014 Sep; 30(6):713-7. PMID: 25022452.
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    32. Li Yang, Andrea Ferrero, Rosalie J. Hagge, Ramsey D. Badawi, Jinyi Qi. Evaluation of penalty design in penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection. Proceedings of SPIE. 2014 Mar 11; 9037:90370k-90370k-8.
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    33. Price PM, Badawi RD, Cherry SR, Jones T. Ultra staging to unmask the prescribing of adjuvant therapy in cancer patients: the future opportunity to image micrometastases using total-body 18F-FDG PET scanning. J Nucl Med. 2014 Apr; 55(4):696-7. PMID: 24604912.
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    34. Chaudhari AJ, Leahy RM, Wise BL, Lane NE, Badawi RD, Joshi AA. Global point signature for shape analysis of carpal bones. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Feb 21; 59(4):961-73. PMID: 24503490.
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    35. Yang L, Zhou J, Ferrero A, Badawi RD, Qi J. Regularization design in penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection in 3D PET. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Jan 20; 59(2):403-19. PMID: 24351981.
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    36. Freedenberg MI, Badawi RD, Tarantal AF, Cherry SR. Performance and limitations of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for imaging very low activity sources. Phys Med. 2014 Feb; 30(1):104-10. PMID: 23680361.
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    37. Joshi AA, Leahy RM, Badawi RD, Chaudhari AJ. MORPHOMETRY FOR EARLY MONITORING OF TREATMENT RESPONSE IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging. 2013; 121-124. PMID: 24026194.
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    38. Jonathan K Poon, Magnus L Dahlbom, William W Moses, Karthik Balakrishnan, Wenli Wang, Simon R Cherry, Ramsey D Badawi. Corrigendum: Optimal whole-body PET scanner configurations for different volumes of LSO scintillator: a simulation study. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2012 Nov 7; 57(23):8117.
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    39. Poon JK, Dahlbom ML, Moses WW, Balakrishnan K, Wang W, Cherry SR, Badawi RD. Optimal whole-body PET scanner configurations for different volumes of LSO scintillator: a simulation study. Phys Med Biol. 2012 Jul 07; 57(13):4077-94. PMID: 22678106.
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    40. Godinez F, Chaudhari AJ, Yang Y, Farrell R, Badawi RD. Characterization of a high-resolution hybrid DOI detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner. Phys Med Biol. 2012 Jun 07; 57(11):3435-49. PMID: 22581109.
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    41. Bowen SL, Ferrero A, Badawi RD. Quantification with a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner. Med Phys. 2012 May; 39(5):2694-707. PMID: 22559640.
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    42. Andrea Ferrero, Qiyu Peng, Felipe Godinez, Abhijit J. Chaudhari, Chinh Vu, Woon-Seng Choong, William W. Moses, Ramsey D. Badawi. Design and initial performance evaluation of DbPET2, an intermediate generation breast PET prototype. 2011 Oct 1; 3256-3259.
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    43. Andrea Ferrero, Jonathan K. Poon, Abhijit J. Chaudhari, Lawrence R. MacDonald, Ramsey D. Badawi. Effect of Object Size on Scatter Fraction Estimation Methods for PET—A Computer Simulation Study. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2011 Feb 1; 58(1):82-86.
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    44. Graham MM, Badawi RD, Wahl RL. Variations in PET/CT methodology for oncologic imaging at U.S. academic medical centers: an imaging response assessment team survey. J Nucl Med. 2011 Feb; 52(2):311-7. PMID: 21233185.
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    45. Monsky WL, Kim I, Loh S, Li CS, Greasby TA, Deutsch LS, Badawi RD. Semiautomated segmentation for volumetric analysis of intratumoral ethiodol uptake and subsequent tumor necrosis after chemoembolization. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Nov; 195(5):1220-30. PMID: 20966331.
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    46. Monsky WL, Garza AS, Kim I, Loh S, Lin TC, Li CS, Fisher J, Sandhu P, Sidhar V, Chaudhari AJ, Lin F, Deutsch LS, Badawi RD. Treatment planning and volumetric response assessment for Yttrium-90 radioembolization: semiautomated determination of liver volume and volume of tumor necrosis in patients with hepatic malignancy. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2011 Apr; 34(2):306-18. PMID: 20683722.
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    47. Boone JM, Yang K, Burkett GW, Packard NJ, Huang SY, Bowen S, Badawi RD, Lindfors KK. An X-Ray computed tomography/positron emission tomography system designed specifically for breast imaging. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Feb; 9(1):29-44. PMID: 20082528.
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    48. Chaudhari AJ, Bowen SL, Burkett GW, Packard NJ, Godinez F, Joshi AA, Naguwa SM, Shelton DK, Hunter JC, Boone JM, Buonocore MH, Badawi RD. High-resolution (18)F-FDG PET with MRI for monitoring response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010 May; 37(5):1047. PMID: 20119695.
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    49. Bowen SL, Wu Y, Chaudhari AJ, Fu L, Packard NJ, Burkett GW, Yang K, Lindfors KK, Shelton DK, Hagge R, Borowsky AD, Martinez SR, Qi J, Boone JM, Cherry SR, Badawi RD. Initial characterization of a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner during human imaging. J Nucl Med. 2009 Sep; 50(9):1401-8. PMID: 19690029.
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    50. Chaudhari AJ, Ahn S, Levenson R, Badawi RD, Cherry SR, Leahy RM. Excitation spectroscopy in multispectral optical fluorescence tomography: methodology, feasibility and computer simulation studies. Phys Med Biol. 2009 Aug 07; 54(15):4687-704. PMID: 19590118.
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    51. Wu Y, Bowen SL, Yang K, Packard N, Fu L, Burkett G, Qi J, Boone JM, Cherry SR, Badawi RD. PET characteristics of a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner prototype. Phys Med Biol. 2009 Jul 07; 54(13):4273-87. PMID: 19531852.
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    52. Chaudhari AJ, Joshi AA, Wu Y, Leahy RM, Cherry SR, Badawi RD. Spatial distortion correction and crystal identification for MRI-compatible position-sensitive avalanche photodiode-based PET scanners. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2009 Jun 01; 56(3):549-556. PMID: 20161023.
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    53. Fu L, Stickel JR, Badawi RD, Qi J. Quantitative Accuracy of Penalized-Likelihood Reconstruction for ROI Activity Estimation. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2009 Feb 01; 56(1):167. PMID: 20126521.
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    54. Ray S, Hagge R, Gillen M, Cerejo M, Shakeri S, Beckett L, Greasby T, Badawi RD. Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional iterative watershed segmentation methods in hepatic tumor volumetrics. Med Phys. 2008 Dec; 35(12):5869-81. PMID: 19175143.
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    55. Abhijit J. Chaudhari, George W. Burkett, Spencer L. Bowen, Rick Harse, Nathan J. Packard, Robin L. Stern, Stanley M. Naguwa, John C. Hunter, John M. Boone, Michael H. Buonocore, Ramsey D. Badawi. Multimodality High Resolution Wrist Imaging for Monitoring Response to Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Instrumentation and Techniques. 2008 Oct 1; 4840-4844.
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    56. Abhijit J. Chaudhari, Anand A. Joshi, Yibao Wu, Richard M. Leahy, Simon R. Cherry, Ramsey D. Badawi. Spatial Distortion Correction and Crystal Identification for Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiode-Based PET Scanners. 2008 Oct 1; 5045-5052.
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    57. Jonathan K. Poon, Lawrence R. MacDonald, Simon R. Cherry, Ramsey D. Badawi. A Simulation Study of a Long Axial Field of View Whole-Body PET Scanner Using Cylindrical and Anthropomorphic Phantoms. 2008 Oct 1; 4999-5006.
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    58. Chaudhari AJ, Joshi AA, Bowen SL, Leahy RM, Cherry SR, Badawi RD. Crystal identification in positron emission tomography using nonrigid registration to a Fourier-based template. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Sep 21; 53(18):5011-27. PMID: 18723924.
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    59. Abhijit J. Chaudhari, Yongfeng Yang, Richard Farrell, Purushottam A. Dokhale, Kanai S. Shah, Simon R. Cherry, Ramsey D. Badawi. PSPMT/APD Hybrid DOI Detectors for the PET Component of a Dedicated Breast PET/CT System—A Feasibility Study. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2008 Jun 1; 55(3):853-861.
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    60. Holdsworth CH, Badawi RD, Manola JB, Kijewski MF, Israel DA, Demetri GD, Van den Abbeele AD. CT and PET: early prognostic indicators of response to imatinib mesylate in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Dec; 189(6):W324-30. PMID: 18029844.
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    61. El Fakhri G, Santos PA, Badawi RD, Holdsworth CH, Van Den Abbeele AD, Kijewski MF. Impact of acquisition geometry, image processing, and patient size on lesion detection in whole-body 18F-FDG PET. J Nucl Med. 2007 Dec; 48(12):1951-60. PMID: 18006613.
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    62. Fahey FH, Palmer MR, Strauss KJ, Zimmerman RE, Badawi RD, Treves ST. Dosimetry and adequacy of CT-based attenuation correction for pediatric PET: phantom study. Radiology. 2007 Apr; 243(1):96-104. PMID: 17293575.
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    63. Frederic H. Fahey, Ramsey D. Badawi. Positron Emission Tomography. 2007 Jan 1; 484-504.
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    64. Abhijit J. Chaudhari, Yongfeng Yang, Richard Farrell, Purushottam A. Dokhale, Kanai S. Shah, Simon R. Cherry, Ramsey D. Badawi. PSPMT/APD hybrid DOI detectors for the PET component of a dedicated breast PET/CT system - a feasibility study. 2007 Jan 1; 4:2851-2858.
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    65. Lin Fu, Jennifer R. Stickel, Ramsey D. Badawi, Jinyi Qi. Quantitative Accuracy of Penalized-Likelihood Reconstruction for ROI Activity Estimation. 2007 Jan 1; 5:3881-3885.
      View in: Publisher Site
    66. Yibao Wu, Kai Yang, Nathan Packard, Lin Fu, Jennifer Stickel, Vi-Hoa Tran, Jinyi Qi, John M. Boone, Simon R. Cherry, Ramsey D. Badawi. Characteristics of the PET Component of a Dedicated Breast PET/CT Scanner Prototype. 2006 Jan 1; 4:2335-2339.
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    67. Lodge MA, Badawi RD, Gilbert R, Dibos PE, Line BR. Comparison of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional acquisition for 18F-FDG PET oncology studies performed on an LSO-based scanner. J Nucl Med. 2006 Jan; 47(1):23-31. PMID: 16391183.
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    68. Badawi RD, Dahlbom M. NEC: some coincidences are more equivalent than others. J Nucl Med. 2005 Nov; 46(11):1767-8. PMID: 16269587.
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    69. Van den Abbeele AD, Badawi RD. Use of positron emission tomography in oncology and its potential role to assess response to imatinib mesylate therapy in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Eur J Cancer. 2002 Sep; 38 Suppl 5:S60-5. PMID: 12528774.
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    70. Ramsey D Badawi. Nuclear medicine. Physics Education. 2001 Nov 1; 36(6):452.
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    71. Badawi RD, Ferreira NC, Kohlmyer SG, Dahlbom M, Marsden PK, Lewellen TK. A comparison of normalization effects on three whole-body cylindrical 3D PET systems. Phys Med Biol. 2000 Nov; 45(11):3253-66. PMID: 11098902.
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    72. Yates RW, Marsden PK, Badawi RD, Cronin BF, Anderson DR, Tynan MJ, Maisey MN, Baker EJ. Evaluation of myocardial perfusion using positron emission tomography in infants following a neonatal arterial switch operation. Pediatr Cardiol. 2000 Mar-Apr; 21(2):111-8. PMID: 10754077.
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    73. Badawi RD, Miller MP, Bailey DL, Marsden PK. Randoms variance reduction in 3D PET. Phys Med Biol. 1999 Apr; 44(4):941-54. PMID: 10232807.
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    74. Badawi RD, Marsden PK. Developments in component-based normalization for 3D PET. Phys Med Biol. 1999 Feb; 44(2):571-94. PMID: 10070802.
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    75. Lodge MA, Badawi RD, Marsden PK. A clinical evaluation of the quantitative accuracy of simultaneous emission/transmission scanning in whole-body positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med. 1998 Apr; 25(4):417-23. PMID: 9553172.
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    76. Baldock C, Burford RP, Billingham N, Wagner GS, Patval S, Badawi RD, Keevil SF. Experimental procedure for the manufacture and calibration of polyacrylamide gel (PAG) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiation dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 1998 Mar; 43(3):695-702. PMID: 9533146.
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    77. Badawi RD, Lodge MA, Marsden PK. Algorithms for calculating detector efficiency normalization coefficients for true coincidences in 3D PET. Phys Med Biol. 1998 Jan; 43(1):189-205. PMID: 9483631.
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    78. Badawi RD. 3D-mode acquisition in clinical PET. Nucl Med Commun. 1997 Sep; 18(9):801-4. PMID: 9352544.
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    79. Wong MT, Fenwick PB, Lumsden J, Fenton GW, Maisey MN, Lewis P, Badawi R. Positron emission tomography in male violent offenders with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1997 Feb 07; 68(2-3):111-23. PMID: 9104758.
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    80. Badawi RD, Marsden PK, Cronin BF, Sutcliffe JL, Maisey MN. Optimization of noise-equivalent count rates in 3D PET. Phys Med Biol. 1996 Sep; 41(9):1755-76. PMID: 8884911.
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    81. Baldock C, Hughes SW, Sofat A, Batchelor S, Badawi RD. Radiation risks to personnel and public during the treatment of malignant glioma using interstitial brachytherapy. Br J Radiol. 1993 Oct; 66(790):915-7. PMID: 8220976.
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