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Carl Keen

TitleDistinguished Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California Davis
DepartmentEndocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Address3135A Meyer Hall
CA 95616
Phone530-752-6331
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Dharmar M, Beccarelli LM, Bergman JJ, Briggs M, Brian KM, Feenstra G, Hillhouse JC, Keen CL, Schaefer SE, Smith MH, Spezzano T, Steinberg FM, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Response to "Dramatic Decreases in BMI Percentiles, but Valid Conclusions Can Only Come From Valid Analyses". J Nutr Educ Behav. 2018 Aug 01. PMID: 30077580.
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    2. Al-Dashti YA, Holt RR, Stebbins CL, Keen CL, Hackman RM. Dietary Flavanols: A Review of Select Effects on Vascular Function, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance. J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 May 02; 1-15. PMID: 29718795.
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    3. Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Dharmar M, Beccarelli LM, Bergman JJ, Briggs M, Brian KM, Feenstra G, Hillhouse JC, Keen CL, Ontai LL, Schaefer SE, Smith MH, Spezzano T, Steinberg FM, Sutter C, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Response to "A Comment on Scherr et al 'A Multicomponent, School-Based Intervention, the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, Improves Nutrition-Related Outcomes'". J Nutr Educ Behav. 2018 Mar; 50(3):326-327. PMID: 29524985.
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    4. Beccarelli LM, Scherr RE, Newman JW, Borkowska AG, Gray IJ, Linnell JD, Keen CL, Young HM. Associations Among Fatty Acids, Desaturase and Elongase, and Insulin Resistance in Children. J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 Jan; 37(1):44-50. PMID: 29043930.
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    5. Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Dharmar M, Beccarelli LM, Bergman JJ, Briggs M, Brian KM, Feenstra G, Hillhouse JC, Keen CL, Ontai LL, Schaefer SE, Smith MH, Spezzano T, Steinberg FM, Sutter C, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. A Multicomponent, School-Based Intervention, the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, Improves Nutrition-Related Outcomes. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2017 May; 49(5):368-379.e1. PMID: 28189500.
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    6. Carlson CR, Uriu-Adams JY, Chambers CD, Yevtushok L, Zymak-Zakutnya N, Chan PH, Schafer JJ, Wertelecki W, Keen CL. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Ukrainian Women: Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Vitamin D Status. J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Jan; 36(1):44-56. PMID: 28169608.
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    7. Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. The Basis of Structure/Function Claims of Nutraceuticals. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2016 Dec; 51(3):370-382. PMID: 27122022.
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    8. Beccarelli LM, Scherr RE, Dharmar M, Ermakov IV, Gellermann W, Jahns L, Linnell JD, Keen CL, Steinberg FM, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Using Skin Carotenoids to Assess Dietary Changes in Students After 1 Academic Year of Participating in the Shaping Healthy Choices Program. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2017 01; 49(1):73-78.e1. PMID: 28341018.
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    9. Medici V, Kieffer DA, Shibata NM, Chima H, Kim K, Canovas A, Medrano JF, Islas-Trejo AD, Kharbanda KK, Olson K, Su RJ, Islam MS, Syed R, Keen CL, Miller AY, Rutledge JC, Halsted CH, LaSalle JM. Wilson Disease: Epigenetic effects of choline supplementation on phenotype and clinical course in a mouse model. Epigenetics. 2016 Nov; 11(11):804-818. PMID: 27611852.
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    10. Djurica D, Holt RR, Ren J, Shindel AW, Hackman RM, Keen CL. Effects of a dietary strawberry powder on parameters of vascular health in adolescent males. Br J Nutr. 2016 Aug; 116(4):639-47. PMID: 27464461.
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    11. Hourigan LA, Omaye ST, Keen CL, Jones JA, Dubick MA. Vitamin and Trace Element Loss from Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2016 Jan; 29(1):20-25. PMID: 26650093.
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    12. Coles CD, Kable JA, Keen CL, Jones KL, Wertelecki W, Granovska IV, Pashtepa AO, Chambers CD. Dose and Timing of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Maternal Nutritional Supplements: Developmental Effects on 6-Month-Old Infants. Matern Child Health J. 2015 Dec; 19(12):2605-14. PMID: 26164422; PMCID: PMC4644455 [Available on 12/01/16].
    13. Sowell KD, Keen CL, Uriu-Adams JY. Vitamin D and Reproduction: From Gametes to Childhood. Healthcare (Basel). 2015 Nov 09; 3(4):1097-120. PMID: 27417816; PMCID: PMC4934634.
    14. Ottaviani JI, Balz M, Kimball J, Ensunsa JL, Fong R, Momma TY, Kwik-Uribe C, Schroeter H, Keen CL. Safety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec; 102(6):1425-35. PMID: 26537937.
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    15. Schroeter H, Keen CL, Sesso HD, Manson JE, Lupton JR. Is this the end of (-)-epicatechin, or not? New study highlights the complex challenges associated with research into the cardiovascular health benefits of bioactive food constituents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct; 102(4):975-6. PMID: 26429943.
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    16. Holt RR, Yim SJ, Shearer GC, Hackman RM, Djurica D, Newman JW, Shindel AW, Keen CL. Effects of short-term walnut consumption on human microvascular function and its relationship to plasma epoxide content. J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Dec; 26(12):1458-66. PMID: 26396054.
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    17. Nguyen LM, Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Ermakov IV, Gellermann W, Jahns L, Keen CL, Miyamoto S, Steinberg FM, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015 Apr 15; 572:73-80. PMID: 25765187.
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    18. Yang H, Keen CL, Lanoue L. Influence of intracellular zinc on cultures of rat cardiac neural crest cells. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2015 Feb; 104(1):11-22. PMID: 25689142.
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    19. Lesser MNR, Keen CL, Lanoue L. Reproductive and developmental outcomes, and influence on maternal and offspring tissue mineral concentrations, of (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and rutin ingestion prior to, and during pregnancy and lactation in C57BL/6J mice. Toxicol Rep. 2015; 2:443-449. PMID: 28962380.
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    20. Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Smith MH, Briggs M, Bergman J, Brian KM, Dharmar M, Feenstra G, Hillhouse C, Keen CL, Nguyen LM, Nicholson Y, Ontai L, Schaefer SE, Spezzano T, Steinberg FM, Sutter C, Wright JE, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2014 Nov-Dec; 46(6):e13-21. PMID: 25457732.
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    21. Borchers AT, Keen CL, Huntley AC, Gershwin ME. Lyme disease: a rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and treatment. J Autoimmun. 2015 Feb; 57:82-115. PMID: 25451629.
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    22. Hackman RM, Aggarwal BB, Applebaum RS, deVere White RW, Dubick MA, Heber D, Ito T, Johnson GH, Keen CL, Winters BL, Stohs SJ. Forecasting nutrition research in 2020. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014; 33(4):340-6. PMID: 25144361.
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    23. Le A, Shibata NM, French SW, Kim K, Kharbanda KK, Islam MS, LaSalle JM, Halsted CH, Keen CL, Medici V. Characterization of timed changes in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, gene expression, and global DNA methylation in the Jackson toxic milk mouse model of Wilson disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 May 07; 15(5):8004-23. PMID: 24810691; PMCID: PMC4057715.
    24. Medici V, Shibata NM, Kharbanda KK, Islam MS, Keen CL, Kim K, Tillman B, French SW, Halsted CH, LaSalle JM. Maternal choline modifies fetal liver copper, gene expression, DNA methylation, and neonatal growth in the tx-j mouse model of Wilson disease. Epigenetics. 2014 Feb; 9(2):286-96. PMID: 24220304; PMCID: PMC3962539.
    25. Chowanadisai W, Graham DM, Keen CL, Rucker RB, Messerli MA. A zinc transporter gene required for development of the nervous system. Commun Integr Biol. 2013 Nov 01; 6(6):e26207. PMID: 24567773; PMCID: PMC3925451.
    26. Chowanadisai W, Graham DM, Keen CL, Rucker RB, Messerli MA. Neurulation and neurite extension require the zinc transporter ZIP12 (slc39a12). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 11; 110(24):9903-8. PMID: 23716681; PMCID: PMC3683776.
    27. Uriu-Adams JY, Obican SG, Keen CL. Vitamin D and maternal and child health: overview and implications for dietary requirements. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2013 Mar; 99(1):24-44. PMID: 23723170.
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    28. Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Newman JW, Pedersen TL, Keen CL, Ducore JM. Oral or parenteral administration of curcumin does not prevent the growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells engrafted into a NOD/SCID mouse model. Int J Oncol. 2013 Feb; 42(2):741-8. PMID: 23232667; PMCID: PMC3583839.
    29. Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Newman JW, Pedersen TL, Keen CL, Ducore JM. Dietary resveratrol does not delay engraftment, sensitize to vincristine or inhibit growth of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in NOD/SCID mice. Int J Oncol. 2012 Dec; 41(6):2207-12. PMID: 23041950; PMCID: PMC3583654.
    30. Ottaviani JI, Kwik-Uribe C, Keen CL, Schroeter H. Intake of dietary procyanidins does not contribute to the pool of circulating flavanols in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr; 95(4):851-8. PMID: 22378733.
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    31. Holt RR, Heiss C, Kelm M, Keen CL. The potential of flavanol and procyanidin intake to influence age-related vascular disease. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2012; 31(3):290-323. PMID: 22888843.
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    32. Ottaviani JI, Momma TY, Kuhnle GK, Keen CL, Schroeter H. Structurally related (-)-epicatechin metabolites in humans: assessment using de novo chemically synthesized authentic standards. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Apr 15; 52(8):1403-12. PMID: 22240152.
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    33. Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Newman JW, Pedersen TL, Keen CL, Ducore JM. Resveratrol given intraperitoneally does not inhibit the growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in a NOD/SCID mouse model. Int J Oncol. 2012 Apr; 40(4):1277-84. PMID: 22200740; PMCID: PMC3270126.
    34. Hills JI, Golub MS, Bettendorff L, Keen CL. The effect of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide on behavior of juvenile DBA/2J mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012 Mar; 34(2):242-52. PMID: 21816221.
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    35. Mackenzie GG, Salvador GA, Romero C, Keen CL, Oteiza PI. A deficit in zinc availability can cause alterations in tubulin thiol redox status in cultured neurons and in the developing fetal rat brain. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jul 15; 51(2):480-9. PMID: 21600978; PMCID: PMC3506427.
    36. Borchers AT, Chang C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-an epidemiological and pathological review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011 Apr; 40(2):117-34. PMID: 20838937.
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    37. Ottaviani JI, Momma TY, Heiss C, Kwik-Uribe C, Schroeter H, Keen CL. The stereochemical configuration of flavanols influences the level and metabolism of flavanols in humans and their biological activity in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jan 15; 50(2):237-44. PMID: 21074608.
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    38. Chambers A, Krewski D, Birkett N, Plunkett L, Hertzberg R, Danzeisen R, Aggett PJ, Starr TB, Baker S, Dourson M, Jones P, Keen CL, Meek B, Schoeny R, Slob W. An exposure-response curve for copper excess and deficiency. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2010 Oct; 13(7-8):546-78. PMID: 21170809.
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    39. Borchers A, Teuber SS, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Food safety. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2010 Oct; 39(2):95-141. PMID: 19911313.
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    40. Schroeter H, Heiss C, Spencer JP, Keen CL, Lupton JR, Schmitz HH. Recommending flavanols and procyanidins for cardiovascular health: current knowledge and future needs. Mol Aspects Med. 2010 Dec; 31(6):546-57. PMID: 20854838.
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    41. Shenoy SF, Kazaks AG, Holt RR, Chen HJ, Winters BL, Khoo CS, Poston WS, Haddock CK, Reeves RS, Foreyt JP, Gershwin ME, Keen CL. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2010 Sep 17; 9:38. PMID: 20849620; PMCID: PMC2949782.
    42. Kalgaonkar S, Nishioka H, Gross HB, Fujii H, Keen CL, Hackman RM. Bioactivity of a flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract in adipocytes and its effects on oxidant defense and indices of metabolic syndrome in animal models. Phytother Res. 2010 Aug; 24(8):1223-8. PMID: 20309950.
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    43. Uriu-Adams JY, Keen CL. Zinc and reproduction: effects of zinc deficiency on prenatal and early postnatal development. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Aug; 89(4):313-25. PMID: 20803691.
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    44. Heiss C, Jahn S, Taylor M, Real WM, Angeli FS, Wong ML, Amabile N, Prasad M, Rassaf T, Ottaviani JI, Mihardja S, Keen CL, Springer ML, Boyle A, Grossman W, Glantz SA, Schroeter H, Yeghiazarians Y. Improvement of endothelial function with dietary flavanols is associated with mobilization of circulating angiogenic cells in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Jul 13; 56(3):218-24. PMID: 20620742.
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    45. Uriu-Adams JY, Scherr RE, Lanoue L, Keen CL. Influence of copper on early development: prenatal and postnatal considerations. Biofactors. 2010 Mar-Apr; 36(2):136-52. PMID: 20232410.
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    46. Keen CL, Uriu-Adams JY, Skalny A, Grabeklis A, Grabeklis S, Green K, Yevtushok L, Wertelecki WW, Chambers CD. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example. Biofactors. 2010 Mar-Apr; 36(2):125-35. PMID: 20333752; PMCID: PMC2927848.
    47. Gershwin ME, Borchers AT, Keen CL, Hendler S, Hagie F, Greenwood MR. Public safety and dietary supplementation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Mar; 1190:104-17. PMID: 20388141.
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    48. Shenoy SF, Poston WS, Reeves RS, Kazaks AG, Holt RR, Keen CL, Chen HJ, Haddock CK, Winters BL, Khoo CS, Foreyt JP. Weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome given DASH diet counseling when provided a low sodium vegetable juice: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2010 Feb 23; 9:8. PMID: 20178625; PMCID: PMC2841082.
    49. Hanna LA, Clegg MS, Ellis-Hutchings RG, Niles BJ, Keen CL. The influence of gestational zinc deficiency on the fetal insulin-like growth factor axis in the rat. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010 Feb; 235(2):206-14. PMID: 20404036.
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    50. Kalgaonkar S, Gross HB, Yokoyama W, Keen CL. Effects of a flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Golden Syrian hamster model. J Med Food. 2010 Feb; 13(1):108-15. PMID: 20136443.
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    51. Adamo AM, Zago MP, Mackenzie GG, Aimo L, Keen CL, Keenan A, Oteiza PI. The role of zinc in the modulation of neuronal proliferation and apoptosis. Neurotox Res. 2010 Jan; 17(1):1-14. PMID: 19784710.
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    52. Lanoue L, Green KK, Kwik-Uribe C, Keen CL. Dietary factors and the risk for acute infant leukemia: evaluating the effects of cocoa-derived flavanols on DNA topoisomerase activity. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010 Jan; 235(1):77-89. PMID: 20404022.
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    53. Borchers AT, Naguwa SM, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. The implications of autoimmunity and pregnancy. J Autoimmun. 2010 May; 34(3):J287-99. PMID: 20031371.
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    54. Williamson G, Sies H, Heber D, Keen CL, Macdonald IA, Actis-Goretta L, Actis-Gorreta L, Momma TY, Ottaviani JI, Holt RR, Schroeter H, Heiss C. Functional foods for health promotion: state-of-the-science on dietary flavonoids. Extended abstracts from the 12th Annual Conference on Functional Foods for Health Promotion, April 2009. Nutr Rev. 2009 Dec; 67(12):736-43. PMID: 19941619.
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    55. Mackenzie GG, Delfino JM, Keen CL, Fraga CG, Oteiza PI. Dimeric procyanidins are inhibitors of NF-kappaB-DNA binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Nov 01; 78(9):1252-62. PMID: 19591805.
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    56. Borchers AT, Shimoda S, Bowlus C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Lymphocyte recruitment and homing to the liver in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Semin Immunopathol. 2009 Sep; 31(3):309-22. PMID: 19533132; PMCID: PMC2758172.
    57. Kenny TP, Shu SA, Moritoki Y, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Cocoa flavanols and procyanidins can modulate the lipopolysaccharide activation of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro. J Med Food. 2009 Feb; 12(1):1-7. PMID: 19298189.
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    58. Ellis-Hutchings RG, Cherr GN, Hanna LA, Keen CL. The effects of marginal maternal vitamin A status on penta-brominated diphenyl ether mixture-induced alterations in maternal and conceptal vitamin A and fetal development in the Sprague Dawley rat. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2009 Feb; 86(1):48-57. PMID: 19145591.
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    59. Borchers AT, Selmi C, Meyers FJ, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Probiotics and immunity. J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44(1):26-46. PMID: 19159071.
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    60. Selmi C, Cocchi CA, Lanfredini M, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Chocolate at heart: the anti-inflammatory impact of cocoa flavanols. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Nov; 52(11):1340-8. PMID: 18991246.
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    61. Balzer J, Rassaf T, Heiss C, Kleinbongard P, Lauer T, Merx M, Heussen N, Gross HB, Keen CL, Schroeter H, Kelm M. Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Jun 03; 51(22):2141-9. PMID: 18510961.
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    62. Actis-Goretta L, Romanczyk LJ, Rodriguez CA, Kwik-Uribe C, Keen CL. Cytotoxic effects of digalloyl dimer procyanidins in human cancer cell lines. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Dec; 19(12):797-808. PMID: 18440795.
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    63. Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Smoking cessation: significance and implications for children. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2008 Apr; 34(2):231-49. PMID: 17999199.
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    64. Borchers AT, Krishnamurthy A, Keen CL, Meyers FJ, Gershwin ME. The immunobiology of mushrooms. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 Mar; 233(3):259-76. PMID: 18296732.
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    65. Lopez V, Keen CL, Lanoue L. Prenatal zinc deficiency: influence on heart morphology and distribution of key heart proteins in a rat model. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008 Jun; 122(3):238-55. PMID: 18224284.
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    66. Gu YS, Kong J, Cheema GS, Keen CL, Wick G, Gershwin ME. The immunobiology of systemic sclerosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Oct; 38(2):132-60. PMID: 18221988.
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    67. Niles BJ, Clegg MS, Hanna LA, Chou SS, Momma TY, Hong H, Keen CL. Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation, a consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein-binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 22; 283(8):5168-77. PMID: 18073202.
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    68. Selmi C, Bowlus CL, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the new epidemic and the need for novel nutritional approaches. J Med Food. 2007 Dec; 10(4):563-5. PMID: 18158823.
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    69. Selmi C, Montano N, Furlan R, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Inflammation and oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007 Dec; 232(11):1409-13. PMID: 18040064.
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    70. Chang C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Treatment of eczema. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2007 Dec; 33(3):204-25. PMID: 18163227.
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    71. Polagruto JA, Gross HB, Kamangar F, Kosuna K, Sun B, Fujii H, Keen CL, Hackman RM. Platelet reactivity in male smokers following the acute consumption of a flavanol-rich grapeseed extract. J Med Food. 2007 Dec; 10(4):725-30. PMID: 18158849.
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    72. Shenoy SF, Keen CL, Kalgaonkar S, Polagruto JA. Effects of grape seed extract consumption on platelet function in postmenopausal women. Thromb Res. 2007; 121(3):431-2. PMID: 17950783.
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    73. Yang SJ, Keen CL, Lanoue L, Rucker RB, Uriu-Adams JY. Low nitric oxide: a key factor underlying copper-deficiency teratogenicity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Dec 15; 43(12):1639-48. PMID: 18037129; PMCID: PMC2289431.
    74. Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Drug-induced lupus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jun; 1108:166-82. PMID: 17893983.
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    75. Erdman JW, Balentine D, Arab L, Beecher G, Dwyer JT, Folts J, Harnly J, Hollman P, Keen CL, Mazza G, Messina M, Scalbert A, Vita J, Williamson G, Burrowes J. Flavonoids and heart health: proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop, May 31-June 1, 2005, Washington, DC. J Nutr. 2007 03; 137(3 Suppl 1):718S-737S. PMID: 17311968.
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    76. Kenny TP, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Gershwin ME. Immune effects of cocoa procyanidin oligomers on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007 Feb; 232(2):293-300. PMID: 17259337.
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    77. Borchers AT, Hagie F, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. The history and contemporary challenges of the US Food and Drug Administration. Clin Ther. 2007 Jan; 29(1):1-16. PMID: 17379043.
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    78. Polagruto JA, Wang-Polagruto JF, Braun MM, Lee L, Kwik-Uribe C, Keen CL. Cocoa flavanol-enriched snack bars containing phytosterols effectively lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Nov; 106(11):1804-13. PMID: 17081832.
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    79. Yang SJ, Uriu-Adams JY, Keen CL, Rucker RB, Lanoue L. Effects of copper deficiency on mouse yolk sac vasculature and expression of angiogenic mediators. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Oct; 77(5):445-54. PMID: 17066430.
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    80. Mackenzie GG, Keen CL, Oteiza PI. Microtubules are required for NF-kappaB nuclear translocation in neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells: modulation by zinc. J Neurochem. 2006 Oct; 99(2):402-15. PMID: 17029595.
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    81. Mansour M, Cheema GS, Naguwa SM, Greenspan A, Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Ankylosing spondylitis: a contemporary perspective on diagnosis and treatment. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Feb; 36(4):210-23. PMID: 17011612.
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    82. Borchers AT, Chang C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Airborne environmental injuries and human health. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2006 Aug; 31(1):1-101. PMID: 16960302.
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    83. Davis PA, Polagruto JA, Valacchi G, Phung A, Soucek K, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Effect of apple extracts on NF-kappaB activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 May; 231(5):594-8. PMID: 16636308.
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    84. Ellis-Hutchings RG, Cherr GN, Hanna LA, Keen CL. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Sep 01; 215(2):135-45. PMID: 16580039.
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    85. Jones LC, McCarthy KA, Beard JL, Keen CL, Jones BC. Quantitative genetic analysis of brain copper and zinc in BXD recombinant inbred mice. Nutr Neurosci. 2006 Feb-Apr; 9(1-2):81-92. PMID: 16910173.
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    86. Schroeter H, Heiss C, Balzer J, Kleinbongard P, Keen CL, Hollenberg NK, Sies H, Kwik-Uribe C, Schmitz HH, Kelm M. (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 24; 103(4):1024-9. PMID: 16418281; PMCID: PMC1327732.
    87. Mackenzie GG, Zago MP, Erlejman AG, Aimo L, Keen CL, Oteiza PI. alpha-Lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine prevent zinc deficiency-induced activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Free Radic Res. 2006 Jan; 40(1):75-84. PMID: 16298762.
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    88. Selmi C, Mao TK, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Eric Gershwin M. The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006; 47 Suppl 2:S163-71; discussion S172-6. PMID: 16794453.
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    89. Holt RR, Actis-Goretta L, Momma TY, Keen CL. Dietary flavanols and platelet reactivity. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006; 47 Suppl 2:S187-96; discussion S206-9. PMID: 16794457.
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