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Christopher Bowlus

TitleProf
InstitutionUniversity of California Davis
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Harris AM, Link-Gelles R, Kim K, Chandrasekar E, Wang S, Bannister N, Pong P, Chak E, Chen MS, Bowlus C, Nelson NP. Community-Based Services to Improve Testing and Linkage to Care Among Non-U.S.-Born Persons with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection - Three U.S. Programs, October 2014-September 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 May 18; 67(19):541-546. PMID: 29771873.
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    2. Pollheimer MJ, Racedo S, Mikels-Vigdal A, Marshall D, Bowlus C, Lackner C, Madl T, Karlsen TH, Hov JR, Lyman SK, Adamkewicz J, Smith V, Moreau E, Zollner G, Eide TJ, Stojakovic T, Scharnagl H, Gruber HJ, Stauber RE, Trauner M, Fickert P. Lysyl oxidase-like protein 2 (LOXL2) Modules Barrier Function in Cholangiocytes In Cholestasis. J Hepatol. 2018 Apr 27. PMID: 29709678.
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    3. Kuo A, Gomel R, Safer R, Lindor KD, Everson GT, Bowlus C. Characteristics and Outcomes Reported by Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Through an Online Registry. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Apr 26. PMID: 29705262.
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    4. Bowlus C. Scratching the surface of cholestatic itch treatments. Hepatology. 2018 May; 67(5):2045-2048. PMID: 29194716.
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    5. Yao M, Wang L, Leung PSC, Li Y, Liu S, Wang L, Guo X, Zhou G, Yan Y, Guan G, Chen X, Bowlus C, Liu T, Jia J, Gershwin ME, Ma X, Zhao J, Lu F. The Clinical Significance of GP73 in Immunologically Mediated Chronic Liver Diseases: Experimental Data and Literature Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Apr; 54(2):282-294. PMID: 29256057.
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    6. Levy C, Bowlus C, Carey E, Crawford JM, Deane K, Mayo MJ, Kim WR, Fried MW. A real-world observational cohort of patients with primary biliary cholangitis: TARGET-primary biliary cholangitis study design and rationale. Hepatol Commun. 2018 May; 2(5):484-491. PMID: 29761165.
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    7. Bahar R, Wong KA, Liu CH, Bowlus C. Update on New Drugs and Those in Development for the Treatment of Primary Biliary Cholangitis. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2018 Mar; 14(3):154-163. PMID: 29928160.
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    8. Lu M, Zhou Y, Haller IV, Romanelli RJ, VanWormer JJ, Rodriguez CV, Anderson H, Boscarino JA, Schmidt MA, Daida YG, Sahota A, Vincent J, Bowlus C, Lindor K, Zhang T, Trudeau S, Li J, Rupp LB, Gordon SC. Increasing Prevalence of Primary Biliary Cholangitis and Reduced Mortality With Treatment. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Dec 23. PMID: 29277621.
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    9. Tabibian JH, Bowlus C. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A review and update. Liver Res. 2017 Dec; 1(4):221-230. PMID: 29977644.
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    10. Younossi ZM, Afendy A, Stepanova M, Racila A, Nader F, Gomel R, Safer R, Lenderking WR, Skalicky A, Kleinman L, Myers RP, Subramanian GM, McHutchison JG, Levy C, Bowlus C, Kowdley K, Muir AJ. Development and validation of a primary sclerosing cholangitis-specific patient-reported outcomes instrument: The PSC PRO. Hepatology. 2017 Nov 20. PMID: 29152767.
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    11. Bowlus C, Olson KA, Gershwin ME. Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Dec; 14(12):749. PMID: 29094722.
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    12. Goldberg DS, Levy C, Yimam K, Gordon SC, Forman L, Verna E, Yu L, Rahimi R, Schwarz K, Eksteen B, Pratt D, Boyer JL, Assis D, Bowlus C. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Is Not Rare Among Blacks in a Multicenter North American Consortium. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Apr; 16(4):591-593. PMID: 29102704.
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    13. Lu M, Li J, Haller IV, Romanelli RJ, VanWormer JJ, Rodriguez CV, Raebel MA, Boscarino JA, Schmidt MA, Daida YG, Sahota A, Vincent J, Bowlus C, Lindor K, Rupp LB, Gordon SC. Factors Associated With Prevalence and Treatment of Primary Biliary Cholangitis in United States Health Systems. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Oct 21. PMID: 29066370.
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    14. Jones D, Boudes PF, Swain MG, Bowlus C, Galambos MR, Bacon BR, Doerffel Y, Gitlin N, Gordon SC, Odin JA, Sheridan D, Wörns MA, Clark V, Corless L, Hartmann H, Jonas ME, Kremer AE, Mells GF, Buggisch P, Freilich BL, Levy C, Vierling JM, Bernstein DE, Hartleb M, Janczewska E, Rochling F, Shah H, Shiffman ML, Smith JH, Choi YJ, Steinberg A, Varga M, Chera H, Martin R, McWherter CA, Hirschfield GM. Seladelpar (MBX-8025), a selective PPAR-d agonist, in patients with primary biliary cholangitis with an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2, proof-of-concept study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 10; 2(10):716-726. PMID: 28818518.
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    15. Song J, Lleo A, Yang GX, Zhang W, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME, Leung PSC. Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Liver Involvement. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2017 Aug 07. PMID: 28785926.
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    16. Alberts R, de Vries EMG, Goode EC, Jiang X, Sampaziotis F, Rombouts K, Böttcher K, Folseraas T, Weismüller TJ, Mason AL, Wang W, Alexander G, Alvaro D, Bergquist A, Björkström NK, Beuers U, Björnsson E, Boberg KM, Bowlus C, Bragazzi MC, Carbone M, Chazouillères O, Cheung A, Dalekos G, Eaton J, Eksteen B, Ellinghaus D, Färkkilä M, Festen EAM, Floreani A, Franceschet I, Gotthardt DN, Hirschfield GM, Hoek BV, Holm K, Hohenester S, Hov JR, Imhann F, Invernizzi P, Juran BD, Lenzen H, Lieb W, Liu JZ, Marschall HU, Marzioni M, Melum E, Milkiewicz P, Müller T, Pares A, Rupp C, Rust C, Sandford RN, Schramm C, Schreiber S, Schrumpf E, Silverberg MS, Srivastava B, Sterneck M, Teufel A, Vallier L, Verheij J, Vila AV, Vries B, Zachou K, Chapman RW, Manns MP, Pinzani M, Rushbrook SM, Lazaridis KN, Franke A, Anderson CA, Karlsen TH, Ponsioen CY, Weersma RK. Genetic association analysis identifies variants associated with disease progression in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut. 2017 Aug 04. PMID: 28779025.
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    17. Tanaka T, Zhang W, Sun Y, Shuai Z, Chida AS, Kenny TP, Yang GX, Sanz I, Ansari A, Bowlus C, Ippolito GC, Coppel RL, Okazaki K, He XS, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. Autoreactive monoclonal antibodies from patients with primary biliary cholangitis recognize environmental xenobiotics. Hepatology. 2017 09; 66(3):885-895. PMID: 28470667.
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    18. Henriksen EKK, Viken MK, Wittig M, Holm K, Folseraas T, Mucha S, Melum E, Hov JR, Lazaridis KN, Juran BD, Chazouillères O, Färkkilä M, Gotthardt DN, Invernizzi P, Carbone M, Hirschfield GM, Rushbrook SM, Goode E, Ponsioen CY, Weersma RK, Eksteen B, Yimam KK, Gordon SC, Goldberg D, Yu L, Bowlus C, Franke A, Lie BA, Karlsen TH. HLA haplotypes in primary sclerosing cholangitis patients of admixed and non-European ancestry. HLA. 2017 Oct; 90(4):228-233. PMID: 28695657.
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    19. Wang Z, Sheng L, Yang Y, Yang F, Xiao X, Hua J, Guo C, Wei Y, Tang R, Miao Q, Zhang J, Li Y, Fang J, Qiu D, Krawitt EL, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME, Wang Q, Ma X. The Management of Autoimmune Hepatitis Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis: Real-World Experience and a Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2017 Jun; 52(3):424-435. PMID: 27515672.
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    20. Floreani A, Tanaka A, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Geoepidemiology and changing mortality in primary biliary cholangitis. J Gastroenterol. 2017 Jun; 52(6):655-662. PMID: 28365879.
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    21. Chang C, Lleo A, Kananurak A, Grizzi F, Tsuneyama K, Invernizzi P, Bevins CL, Bowlus C. Human ß-Defensin 2 in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar 16; 8(3):e80. PMID: 28300822.
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    22. Weismüller TJ, Trivedi PJ, Bergquist A, Imam M, Lenzen H, Ponsioen CY, Holm K, Gotthardt D, Färkkilä MA, Marschall HU, Thorburn D, Weersma RK, Fevery J, Mueller T, Chazouillères O, Schulze K, Lazaridis KN, Almer S, Pereira SP, Levy C, Mason A, Naess S, Bowlus C, Floreani A, Halilbasic E, Yimam KK, Milkiewicz P, Beuers U, Huynh DK, Pares A, Manser CN, Dalekos GN, Eksteen B, Invernizzi P, Berg CP, Kirchner GI, Sarrazin C, Zimmer V, Fabris L, Braun F, Marzioni M, Juran BD, Said K, Rupp C, Jokelainen K, Benito de Valle M, Saffioti F, Cheung A, Trauner M, Schramm C, Chapman RW, Karlsen TH, Schrumpf E, Strassburg CP, Manns MP, Lindor KD, Hirschfield GM, Hansen BE, Boberg KM. Patient Age, Sex, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype Associate With Course of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Gastroenterology. 2017 06; 152(8):1975-1984.e8. PMID: 28274849.
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    23. Takakura WR, Tabibian JH, Bowlus C. The evolution of natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar; 33(2):71-77. PMID: 28030370.
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    24. Walsh CE, Workowski K, Terrault NA, Sax PE, Cohen A, Bowlus C, Kim AY, Hyland RH, Han B, Wang J, Stamm LM, Brainard DM, McHutchison JG, von Drygalski A, Rhame F, Fried MW, Kouides P, Balba G, Reddy KR. Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and sofosbuvir plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C and bleeding disorders. Haemophilia. 2017 Mar; 23(2):198-206. PMID: 28124511.
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    25. Ji SG, Juran BD, Mucha S, Folseraas T, Jostins L, Melum E, Kumasaka N, Atkinson EJ, Schlicht EM, Liu JZ, Shah T, Gutierrez-Achury J, Boberg KM, Bergquist A, Vermeire S, Eksteen B, Durie PR, Farkkila M, Müller T, Schramm C, Sterneck M, Weismüller TJ, Gotthardt DN, Ellinghaus D, Braun F, Teufel A, Laudes M, Lieb W, Jacobs G, Beuers U, Weersma RK, Wijmenga C, Marschall HU, Milkiewicz P, Pares A, Kontula K, Chazouillères O, Invernizzi P, Goode E, Spiess K, Moore C, Sambrook J, Ouwehand WH, Roberts DJ, Danesh J, Floreani A, Gulamhusein AF, Eaton JE, Schreiber S, Coltescu C, Bowlus C, Luketic VA, Odin JA, Chopra KB, Kowdley KV, Chalasani N, Manns MP, Srivastava B, Mells G, Sandford RN, Alexander G, Gaffney DJ, Chapman RW, Hirschfield GM, de Andrade M, Rushbrook SM, Franke A, Karlsen TH, Lazaridis KN, Anderson CA. Genome-wide association study of primary sclerosing cholangitis identifies new risk loci and quantifies the genetic relationship with inflammatory bowel disease. Nat Genet. 2017 Feb; 49(2):269-273. PMID: 27992413.
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    26. Stewart SL, Kwong SL, Bowlus C, Nguyen TT, Maxwell AE, Bastani R, Chak EW, Chen MS. Racial/ethnic disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment and survival in California, 1988-2012. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct 14; 22(38):8584-8595. PMID: 27784971.
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    27. Bowlus C, Kenney JT, Rice G, Navarro R. Primary Biliary Cholangitis: Medical and Specialty Pharmacy Management Update. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2016 Oct; 22(10-a-s Suppl):S3-S15. PMID: 27700211.
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    28. Bowlus C. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis in adult patients: clinical utility and patient selection. Hepat Med. 2016; 8:89-95. PMID: 27621676; PMCID: PMC5012622.
    29. Nevens F, Andreone P, Mazzella G, Strasser SI, Bowlus C, Invernizzi P, Drenth JP, Pockros PJ, Regula J, Beuers U, Trauner M, Jones DE, Floreani A, Hohenester S, Luketic V, Shiffman M, van Erpecum KJ, Vargas V, Vincent C, Hirschfield GM, Shah H, Hansen B, Lindor KD, Marschall HU, Kowdley KV, Hooshmand-Rad R, Marmon T, Sheeron S, Pencek R, MacConell L, Pruzanski M, Shapiro D. A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Obeticholic Acid in Primary Biliary Cholangitis. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 18; 375(7):631-43. PMID: 27532829.
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    30. Yang GX, Sun Y, Tsuneyama K, Zhang W, Leung PS, He XS, Ansari AA, Bowlus C, Ridgway WM, Gershwin ME. Endogenous interleukin-22 protects against inflammatory bowel disease but not autoimmune cholangitis in dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 2016 08; 185(2):154-64. PMID: 27148790; PMCID: PMC4955007 [Available on 08/01/17].
    31. Chak EW, Sarkar S, Bowlus C. Improving Healthcare Systems to Reduce Healthcare Disparities in Viral Hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2016 10; 61(10):2776-2783. PMID: 27234269.
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    32. Bernuzzi F, Marabita F, Lleo A, Carbone M, Mirolo M, Marzioni M, Alpini G, Alvaro D, Boberg KM, Locati M, Torzilli G, Rimassa L, Piscaglia F, He XS, Bowlus C, Yang GX, Gershwin ME, Invernizzi P. Serum microRNAs as novel biomarkers for primary sclerosing cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Clin Exp Immunol. 2016 07; 185(1):61-71. PMID: 26864161; PMCID: PMC4908296 [Available on 07/01/17].
    33. Kuo A, Kuo A, Bowlus C. Management of symptom complexes in primary biliary cholangitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2016 May; 32(3):204-9. PMID: 26825590.
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    34. Sun Y, Zhang W, Evans JF, Floreani A, Zou Z, Nishio Y, Qi R, Leung PS, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Autotaxin, Pruritus and Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC). Autoimmun Rev. 2016 Aug; 15(8):795-800. PMID: 27019050.
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    35. Floreani A, Sun Y, Zou ZS, Li B, Cazzagon N, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Proposed therapies in primary biliary cholangitis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 10(3):371-382. PMID: 26577047; PMCID: PMC4935759 [Available on 01/06/17].
    36. Choi J, Leung PS, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Dec; 49(3):327-32. PMID: 25619872.
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    37. Bowlus C, Olson KA, Gershwin ME. Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Jan; 13(1):28-37. PMID: 26526122.
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    38. Sarkar S, Bowlus C. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Multiple Phenotypes, Multiple Approaches. Clin Liver Dis. 2016 Feb; 20(1):67-77. PMID: 26593291; PMCID: PMC4662051 [Available on 02/01/17].
    39. Tomiyama T, Yang GX, Zhao M, Zhang W, Tanaka H, Wang J, Leung PS, Okazaki K, He XS, Lu Q, Coppel RL, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. The modulation of co-stimulatory molecules by circulating exosomes in primary biliary cirrhosis. Cell Mol Immunol. 2017 Mar; 14(3):276-284. PMID: 26388238.
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    40. Torruellas C, Bowlus C. Capsule commentary on Mukhtar et al., Assessment of HBV preventive services in a medically underserved Asian and Pacific Islander population using provider and patient data. J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Jun; 30(6):866. PMID: 25820546; PMCID: PMC4441667.
    41. Floreani A, Franceschet I, Perini L, Cazzagon N, Gershwin ME, Bowlus C. New therapies for primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Jun; 48(2-3):263-72. PMID: 25331740.
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    42. Tanaka H, Yang GX, Tomiyama T, Tsuneyama K, Zhang W, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Joh T, Nadler SG, Ansari AA, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Immunological potential of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin in murine autoimmune cholangitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015 Jun; 180(3):371-82. PMID: 25581259; PMCID: PMC4449766.
    43. Rong G, Wang H, Bowlus C, Wang C, Lu Y, Zeng Z, Qu J, Lou M, Chen Y, An L, Yang Y, Gershwin ME. Incidence and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Jun; 48(2-3):132-41. PMID: 25762349.
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    44. Mousa HS, Lleo A, Invernizzi P, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Advances in pharmacotherapy for primary biliary cirrhosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 Apr; 16(5):633-43. PMID: 25543678; PMCID: PMC4591873.
    45. Norman GL, Yang CY, Ostendorff HP, Shums Z, Lim MJ, Wang J, Awad A, Hirschfield GM, Milkiewicz P, Bloch DB, Rothschild KJ, Bowlus C, Adamopoulos IE, Leung PS, Janssen HJ, Cheung AC, Coltescu C, Gershwin ME. Anti-kelch-like 12 and anti-hexokinase 1: novel autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2015 Feb; 35(2):642-51. PMID: 25243383; PMCID: PMC4305042.
    46. Zhang J, Zhang W, Leung PS, Bowlus C, Dhaliwal S, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Yang GX, Wang J, Kenny TP, He XS, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. Ongoing activation of autoantigen-specific B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2014 Nov; 60(5):1708-16. PMID: 25043065; PMCID: PMC4211937.
    47. Yang CY, Ma X, Tsuneyama K, Huang S, Takahashi T, Chalasani NP, Bowlus C, Yang GX, Leung PS, Ansari AA, Wu L, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. IL-12/Th1 and IL-23/Th17 biliary microenvironment in primary biliary cirrhosis: implications for therapy. Hepatology. 2014 May; 59(5):1944-53. PMID: 24375552; PMCID: PMC3999171.
    48. Yimam KK, Bowlus C. Diagnosis and classification of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Apr-May; 13(4-5):445-50. PMID: 24424180.
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    49. Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. The diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Apr-May; 13(4-5):441-4. PMID: 24424173; PMCID: PMC3987745.
    50. Tanaka H, Yang GX, Iwakoshi N, Knechtle SJ, Kawata K, Tsuneyama K, Leung P, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Joh T, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Anti-CD40 ligand monoclonal antibody delays the progression of murine autoimmune cholangitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Dec; 174(3):364-71. PMID: 23981074; PMCID: PMC3826303.
    51. Wang J, Budamagunta MS, Voss JC, Kurth MJ, Lam KS, Lu L, Kenny TP, Bowlus C, Kikuchi K, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Leung PS. Antimitochondrial antibody recognition and structural integrity of the inner lipoyl domain of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 01; 191(5):2126-33. PMID: 23894195; PMCID: PMC3759514.
    52. Chen MS, Fang DM, Stewart SL, Ly MY, Lee S, Dang JH, Nguyen TT, Maxwell AE, Bowlus C, Bastani R, Nguyen TT. Increasing hepatitis B screening for hmong adults: results from a randomized controlled community-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 May; 22(5):782-91. PMID: 23613027; PMCID: PMC3650126.
    53. Liu JZ, Hov JR, Folseraas T, Ellinghaus E, Rushbrook SM, Doncheva NT, Andreassen OA, Weersma RK, Weismüller TJ, Eksteen B, Invernizzi P, Hirschfield GM, Gotthardt DN, Pares A, Ellinghaus D, Shah T, Juran BD, Milkiewicz P, Rust C, Schramm C, Müller T, Srivastava B, Dalekos G, Nöthen MM, Herms S, Winkelmann J, Mitrovic M, Braun F, Ponsioen CY, Croucher PJ, Sterneck M, Teufel A, Mason AL, Saarela J, Leppa V, Dorfman R, Alvaro D, Floreani A, Onengut-Gumuscu S, Rich SS, Thompson WK, Schork AJ, Næss S, Thomsen I, Mayr G, König IR, Hveem K, Cleynen I, Gutierrez-Achury J, Ricaño-Ponce I, van Heel D, Björnsson E, Sandford RN, Durie PR, Melum E, Vatn MH, Silverberg MS, Duerr RH, Padyukov L, Brand S, Sans M, Annese V, Achkar JP, Boberg KM, Marschall HU, Chazouillères O, Bowlus C, Wijmenga C, Schrumpf E, Vermeire S, Albrecht M. Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Nat Genet. 2013 Jun; 45(6):670-5. PMID: 23603763.
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    54. Chen RC, Naiyanetr P, Shu SA, Wang J, Yang GX, Kenny TP, Guggenheim KC, Butler JD, Bowlus C, Tao MH, Kurth MJ, Ansari AA, Kaplan M, Coppel RL, Lleo A, Gershwin ME, Leung PS. Antimitochondrial antibody heterogeneity and the xenobiotic etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2013 Apr; 57(4):1498-508. PMID: 23184636; PMCID: PMC3601563.
    55. Kawata K, Kobayashi Y, Gershwin ME, Bowlus C. The immunophysiology and apoptosis of biliary epithelial cells: primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2012 Dec; 43(3):230-41. PMID: 22689287.
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    56. Tanaka H, Leung PS, Kenny TP, Gershwin ME, Bowlus C. Immunological orchestration of liver fibrosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2012 Dec; 43(3):220-9. PMID: 22695942.
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    57. Hsu L, Bowlus C, Stewart SL, Nguyen TT, Dang J, Chan B, Chen MS. Electronic messages increase hepatitis B screening in at-risk Asian American patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2013 Mar; 58(3):807-14. PMID: 23073671; PMCID: PMC3578075.
    58. Ngo C, Leung JW, Mann SK, Terrado C, Bowlus C, Ingram D, Leung FW. Interim report of a randomized cross-over study comparing clinical performance of novice trainee endoscopists using conventional air insufflation versus warm water infusion colonoscopy. J Interv Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul; 2(3):135-139. PMID: 23805395.
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    59. Tsuda M, Moritoki Y, Lian ZX, Zhang W, Yoshida K, Wakabayashi K, Yang GX, Nakatani T, Vierling J, Lindor K, Gershwin ME, Bowlus C. Biochemical and immunologic effects of rituximab in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and an incomplete response to ursodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology. 2012 Feb; 55(2):512-21. PMID: 22006563.
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    60. Gupta A, Bowlus C. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: etiopathogenesis and clinical management. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 01; 4:1683-705. PMID: 22201985.
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    61. Medici V, Virata MC, Peerson JM, Stabler SP, French SW, Gregory JF, Albanese A, Bowlus C, Devaraj S, Panacek EA, Richards JR, Halsted CH. S-adenosyl-L-methionine treatment for alcoholic liver disease: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Nov; 35(11):1960-5. PMID: 22044287; PMCID: PMC3315189.
    62. Tsuda M, Ambrosini YM, Zhang W, Yang GX, Ando Y, Rong G, Tsuneyama K, Sumida K, Shimoda S, Bowlus C, Leung PS, He XS, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Lian ZX, Gershwin ME. Fine phenotypic and functional characterization of effector cluster of differentiation 8 positive T cells in human patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011 Oct; 54(4):1293-302. PMID: 21735469; PMCID: PMC3184190.
    63. Bowlus C. Cutting edge issues in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011 Oct; 41(2):139-50. PMID: 21170605.
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    64. Toy E, Balasubramanian S, Selmi C, Li CS, Bowlus C. The prevalence, incidence and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in an ethnically diverse population. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011 Jul 18; 11:83. PMID: 21767410; PMCID: PMC3160402.
    65. Rong G, Zhong R, Lleo A, Leung PS, Bowlus C, Yang GX, Yang CY, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Cuebas DA, Worman HJ, Invernizzi P, Gores GJ, Norman G, He XS, Gershwin ME. Epithelial cell specificity and apotope recognition by serum autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011 Jul; 54(1):196-203. PMID: 21488079; PMCID: PMC3125447.
    66. Zhang W, Ono Y, Miyamura Y, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME, Maverakis E. T cell clonal expansions detected in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis express CX3CR1. J Autoimmun. 2011 Sep; 37(2):71-8. PMID: 21636249; PMCID: PMC4018194.
    67. Selmi C, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME, Coppel RL. Primary biliary cirrhosis. Lancet. 2011 May 07; 377(9777):1600-9. PMID: 21529926.
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    68. Bowlus C, Seeley EH, Roder J, Grigorieva J, Roder H, Caprioli RM, Gershwin M. In situ mass spectrometry of autoimmune liver diseases. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011 May; 8(3):237-42. PMID: 21258365; PMCID: PMC3518928.
    69. Bowlus C, Li CS, Karlsen TH, Lie BA, Selmi C. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in genetically diverse populations listed for liver transplantation: unique clinical and human leukocyte antigen associations. Liver Transpl. 2010 Nov; 16(11):1324-30. PMID: 21031548; PMCID: PMC2967453.
    70. Lleo A, Bowlus C, Yang GX, Invernizzi P, Podda M, Van de Water J, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Worman HJ, Gores GJ, Gershwin ME. Biliary apotopes and anti-mitochondrial antibodies activate innate immune responses in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2010 Sep; 52(3):987-98. PMID: 20568301; PMCID: PMC2932809.
    71. Medici V, Peerson JM, Stabler SP, French SW, Gregory JF, Virata MC, Albanese A, Bowlus C, Devaraj S, Panacek EA, Rahim N, Richards JR, Rossaro L, Halsted CH. Impaired homocysteine transsulfuration is an indicator of alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2010 Sep; 53(3):551-7. PMID: 20561703; PMCID: PMC2923260.
    72. Quang YN, Vu J, Yuk J, Li CS, Chen M, Bowlus C. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in US-born and foreign-born Asian/Pacific Islander college students. J Am Coll Health. 2010; 59(1):37-41. PMID: 20670927; PMCID: PMC2982672.
    73. Logan I, Bowlus C. The geoepidemiology of autoimmune intestinal diseases. Autoimmun Rev. 2010 Mar; 9(5):A372-8. PMID: 19903540.
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    74. Borchers AT, Shimoda S, Bowlus C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Lymphocyte recruitment and homing to the liver in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Semin Immunopathol. 2009 Sep; 31(3):309-22. PMID: 19533132; PMCID: PMC2758172.
    75. Aron JH, Bowlus C. The immunobiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Semin Immunopathol. 2009 Sep; 31(3):383-97. PMID: 19468733; PMCID: PMC2758173.
    76. Moritoki Y, Zhang W, Tsuneyama K, Yoshida K, Wakabayashi K, Yang GX, Bowlus C, Ridgway WM, Ueno Y, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Mackay IR, Flavell RA, Gershwin ME, Lian ZX. B cells suppress the inflammatory response in a mouse model of primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2009 Mar; 136(3):1037-47. PMID: 19118554.
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    77. Selmi C, Zuin M, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Anti-mitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Liver Dis. 2008 Feb; 12(1):173-85, ix. PMID: 18242503.
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    78. Klonoff DC, Buse JB, Nielsen LL, Guan X, Bowlus C, Holcombe JH, Wintle ME, Maggs DG. Exenatide effects on diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes treated for at least 3 years. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Jan; 24(1):275-86. PMID: 18053320.
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    79. Selmi C, Gershwin ME, Lindor KD, Worman HJ, Gold EB, Watnik M, Utts J, Invernizzi P, Kaplan MM, Vierling JM, Bowlus C, Silveira MG, Bossi I. Quality of life and everyday activities in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2007 Dec; 46(6):1836-43. PMID: 18027862; PMCID: PMC3148769.
    80. Selmi C, Bowlus C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the new epidemic and the need for novel nutritional approaches. J Med Food. 2007 Dec; 10(4):563-5. PMID: 18158823.
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    81. Medici V, Di Leo V, Lamboglia F, Bowlus C, Tseng SC, D'Incà R, Irato P, Burra P, Martines D, Sturniolo GC. Effect of penicillamine and zinc on iron metabolism in Wilson's disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec; 42(12):1495-500. PMID: 17994470.
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    82. Jenkins ZA, Hagar W, Bowlus C, Johansson HE, Harmatz P, Vichinsky EP, Theil EC. Iron homeostasis during transfusional iron overload in beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease: changes in iron regulatory protein, hepcidin, and ferritin expression. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007 Jun; 24(4):237-43. PMID: 17613866.
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    83. Seo S, Maganti K, Khehra M, Ramsamooj R, Tsodikov A, Bowlus C, McVicar J, Zern M, Torok N. De novo nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2007 Jun; 13(6):844-7. PMID: 17029282.
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    84. Buse JB, Klonoff DC, Nielsen LL, Guan X, Bowlus C, Holcombe JH, Maggs DG, Wintle ME. Metabolic effects of two years of exenatide treatment on diabetes, obesity, and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: an interim analysis of data from the open-label, uncontrolled extension of three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Clin Ther. 2007 Jan; 29(1):139-53. PMID: 17379054.
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    85. Kita H, Hikichi Y, Hikami K, Tsuneyama K, Cui ZG, Osawa H, Ohnishi H, Mutoh H, Hoshino H, Bowlus C, Yamamoto H, Sugano K. Differential gene expression between flat adenoma and normal mucosa in the colon in a microarray analysis. J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov; 41(11):1053-63. PMID: 17160516.
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    86. Osawa H, Kita H, Ohnishi H, Nakazato M, Date Y, Bowlus C, Ishino Y, Watanabe E, Shiiya T, Ueno H, Hoshino H, Satoh K, Sugano K. Changes in plasma ghrelin levels, gastric ghrelin production, and body weight after Helicobacter pylori cure. J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct; 41(10):954-61. PMID: 17096064.
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    87. Aoki CA, Roifman CM, Lian ZX, Bowlus C, Norman GL, Shoenfeld Y, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. IL-2 receptor alpha deficiency and features of primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 2006 Aug; 27(1):50-3. PMID: 16904870.
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    88. Premkumar K, Min K, Alkan Z, Hawkes WC, Ebeler S, Bowlus C. The potentiating and protective effects of ascorbate on oxidative stress depend upon the concentration of dietary iron fed C3H mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Apr; 18(4):272-8. PMID: 16860981.
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    89. Aoki CA, Dawson K, Kenny TP, Gershwin ME, Bowlus C. Gene expression by PBMC in primary sclerosing cholangitis: evidence for dysregulation of immune mediated genes. Clin Dev Immunol. 2006 Jun-Dec; 13(2-4):265-71. PMID: 17162367; PMCID: PMC2270783.
    90. Yen AW, Fancher TL, Bowlus C. Revisiting hereditary hemochromatosis: current concepts and progress. Am J Med. 2006 May; 119(5):391-9. PMID: 16651049.
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    91. Bowlus C, Karlsen TH, Broomé U, Thorsby E, Vatn M, Schrumpf E, Lie BA, Boberg KM. Analysis of MAdCAM-1 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms in 365 Scandinavian patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Hepatol. 2006 Nov; 45(5):704-10. PMID: 16750586.
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    92. Lan RY, Cheng C, Lian ZX, Tsuneyama K, Yang GX, Moritoki Y, Chuang YH, Nakamura T, Saito S, Shimoda S, Tanaka A, Bowlus C, Takano Y, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Liver-targeted and peripheral blood alterations of regulatory T cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2006 Apr; 43(4):729-37. PMID: 16557534.
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    93. Aoki CA, Borchers AT, Li M, Flavell RA, Bowlus C, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2005 Sep; 4(7):450-9. PMID: 16137611.
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    94. Ichiki Y, Bowlus C, Shimoda S, Ishibashi H, Vierling JM, Gershwin ME. T cell immunity and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Autoimmun Rev. 2006 Jan; 5(1):1-9. PMID: 16338205.
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    95. Bowlus C, Willner I, Zern MA, Reuben A, Chen P, Holladay B, Xie L, Woolson RF, Strange C. Factors associated with advanced liver disease in adults with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Apr; 3(4):390-6. PMID: 15822045.
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    96. Aoki CA, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. The immunobiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Autoimmun Rev. 2005 Mar; 4(3):137-43. PMID: 15823499.
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    97. Ichiki Y, Aoki CA, Bowlus C, Shimoda S, Ishibashi H, Gershwin ME. T cell immunity in autoimmune hepatitis. Autoimmun Rev. 2005 Jun; 4(5):315-21. PMID: 15990080.
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    98. Aoki CA, Bowlus C, Rossaro L. An adult case of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia presenting as hepatic dysfunction. Dig Liver Dis. 2005 Mar; 37(3):206-10. PMID: 15888287.
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    99. Cheunsuk S, Lian ZX, Yang GX, Gershwin ME, Gruen JR, Bowlus C. Prss16 is not required for T-cell development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Jan; 25(2):789-96. PMID: 15632078; PMCID: PMC543420.
    100. Aoki CA, Rossaro L, Ramsamooj R, Brandhagen D, Burritt MF, Bowlus C. Liver hepcidin mRNA correlates with iron stores, but not inflammation, in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan; 39(1):71-4. PMID: 15599216.
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    101. Boonjakuakul JK, Syvanen M, Suryaprasad A, Bowlus C, Solnick JV. Transcription profile of Helicobacter pylori in the human stomach reflects its physiology in vivo. J Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 01; 190(5):946-56. PMID: 15295700.
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    102. Farahani P, Chiu S, Bowlus C, Boffelli D, Lee E, Fisler JS, Krauss RM, Warden CH. Obesity in BSB mice is correlated with expression of genes for iron homeostasis and leptin. Obes Res. 2004 Feb; 12(2):191-204. PMID: 14981211.
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    103. Premkumar K, Bowlus C. Ascorbic acid does not increase the oxidative stress induced by dietary iron in C3H mice. J Nutr. 2004 Feb; 134(2):435-8. PMID: 14747685.
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    104. Premkumar K, Bowlus C. Ascorbic acid reduces the frequency of iron induced micronuclei in bone marrow cells of mice. Mutat Res. 2003 Dec 09; 542(1-2):99-103. PMID: 14644358.
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    105. Leong WI, Bowlus C, Tallkvist J, Lönnerdal B. Iron supplementation during infancy--effects on expression of iron transporters, iron absorption, and iron utilization in rat pups. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec; 78(6):1203-11. PMID: 14668284.
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    106. Wu CT, Eiserich JP, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Balasubramanian S, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME, Van De Water J. Myeloperoxidase-positive inflammatory cells participate in bile duct damage in primary biliary cirrhosis through nitric oxide-mediated reactions. Hepatology. 2003 Oct; 38(4):1018-25. PMID: 14512889.
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    107. Leong WI, Bowlus C, Tallkvist J, Lönnerdal B. DMT1 and FPN1 expression during infancy: developmental regulation of iron absorption. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Dec; 285(6):G1153-61. PMID: 12958019.
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    108. Bowlus C, Lie BA. Discussion of the role of hemochromatosis susceptibility gene mutation in protecting against iron deficiency in celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2003 May; 124(5):1562-3; author reply 1564. PMID: 12744238.
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    109. Bowlus C. The role of iron in T cell development and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2003 Mar; 2(2):73-8. PMID: 12848962.
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    110. Tallkvist J, Bowlus C, Lönnerdal B. Effect of iron treatment on nickel absorption and gene expression of the divalent metal transporter (DMT1) by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003 Mar; 92(3):121-4. PMID: 12753426.
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    111. Cheunsuk S, Hsu T, Gershwin ME, Bowlus C. Analysis of the IDDM candidate gene Prss16 in NOD and NON mice. Dev Immunol. 2002 Dec; 9(4):183-6. PMID: 15144014; PMCID: PMC2276111.
    112. Lie BA, Akselsen HE, Bowlus C, Gruen JR, Thorsby E, Undlien DE. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding thymus-specific serine protease in the extended HLA complex: a potential candidate gene for autoimmune and HLA-associated diseases. Genes Immun. 2002 Aug; 3(5):306-12. PMID: 12140752.
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    113. Cheunsuk S, Sparks R, Noveroske JK, Hsu T, Justice MJ, Gershwin ME, Gruen JR, Bowlus C. Expression, genomic structure and mapping of the thymus specific protease prss16: a candidate gene for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus susceptibility. J Autoimmun. 2002 Jun; 18(4):311-6. PMID: 12144812.
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    114. Leigh JP, Bowlus C, Leistikow BN, Schenker M. Costs of hepatitis C. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Oct 08; 161(18):2231-7. PMID: 11575980.
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    115. Tallkvist J, Bowlus C, Lönnerdal B. DMT1 gene expression and cadmium absorption in human absorptive enterocytes. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Jun 20; 122(2):171-7. PMID: 11439223.
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    116. Tallkvist J, Bowlus C, Lönnerdal B. Functional and molecular responses of human intestinal Caco-2 cells to iron treatment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep; 72(3):770-5. PMID: 10966897.
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    117. Bowlus C, Ahn J, Chu T, Gruen JR. Cloning of a novel MHC-encoded serine peptidase highly expressed by cortical epithelial cells of the thymus. Cell Immunol. 1999 Sep 15; 196(2):80-6. PMID: 10527559.
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    118. Goei VL, Choi J, Ahn J, Bowlus C, Raha-Chowdhury R, Gruen JR. Human gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor gene: complementary DNA cloning, expression, chromosomal location, and genomic organization. Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Oct 15; 44(8):659-66. PMID: 9798068.
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    119. Gruen JR, Nalabolu SR, Chu TW, Bowlus C, Fan WF, Goei VL, Wei H, Sivakamasundari R, Liu Y, Xu HX, Parimoo S, Nallur G, Ajioka R, Shukla H, Bray-Ward P, Pan J, Weissman SM. A transcription map of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region. Genomics. 1996 Aug 15; 36(1):70-85. PMID: 8812418.
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    120. Bray-Ward P, Bowlus C, Choi J, Paslier DL, Weissenbach J, Gruen JR. FISH-Mapped CEPH YACs spanning 0 to 46 cM on human chromosome 6. Genomics. 1996 Aug 15; 36(1):104-11. PMID: 8812421.
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