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Christopher Bowlus

TitlePROF IN RES-HCOMP
InstitutionUniversity of California Davis
DepartmentGastroenterology and Hepatology
Address3500 PSSB/UCDMC
CA 95817
Phone916-734-3751
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Muir AJ, Levy C, Janssen HLA, Montano-Loza AJ, Shiffman ML, Caldwell S, Luketic V, Ding D, Jia C, McColgan BJ, McHutchison JG, Subramanian GM, Myers RP, Manns M, Chapman R, Afdhal NH, Goodman Z, Eksteen B, Bowlus CL. Simtuzumab for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Phase 2 Study Results With Insights on the Natural History of the Disease. Hepatology. 2018 Aug 28. PMID: 30153359.
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    2. Chak E, Taefi A, Li CS, Chen MS, Harris AM, MacDonald S, Bowlus CL. Electronic Medical Alerts Increase Screening for Chronic Hepatitis B: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 Aug 08. PMID: 30089680.
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    3. Lindor KD, Bowlus CL, Boyer J, Levy C, Mayo M. Primary Biliary Cholangitis: 2018 Practice Guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2018 Aug 02. PMID: 30070375.
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    4. Pollheimer MJ, Racedo S, Mikels-Vigdal A, Marshall D, Bowlus C, Lackner C, Madl T, Karlsen TH, Hov JR, Lyman SK, Adamkewicz J, Smith V, Moreau E, Zollner G, Eide TJ, Stojakovic T, Scharnagl H, Gruber HJ, Stauber RE, Trauner M, Fickert P. Lysyl oxidase-like protein 2 (LOXL2) Modules Barrier Function in Cholangiocytes In Cholestasis. J Hepatol. 2018 Apr 27. PMID: 29709678.
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    5. Kuo A, Gomel R, Safer R, Lindor KD, Everson GT, Bowlus CL. Characteristics and Outcomes Reported by Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Through an Online Registry. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Apr 26. PMID: 29705262.
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    6. Bowlus CL. Scratching the surface of cholestatic itch treatments. Hepatology. 2018 May; 67(5):2045-2048. PMID: 29194716.
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    7. Yao M, Wang L, Leung PSC, Li Y, Liu S, Wang L, Guo X, Zhou G, Yan Y, Guan G, Chen X, Bowlus CL, Liu T, Jia J, Gershwin ME, Ma X, Zhao J, Lu F. The Clinical Significance of GP73 in Immunologically Mediated Chronic Liver Diseases: Experimental Data and Literature Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Apr; 54(2):282-294. PMID: 29256057.
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    8. Bahar R, Wong KA, Liu CH, Bowlus CL. Update on New Drugs and Those in Development for the Treatment of Primary Biliary Cholangitis. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2018 Mar; 14(3):154-163. PMID: 29928160.
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    9. Tabibian JH, Bowlus CL. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A review and update. Liver Res. 2017 Dec; 1(4):221-230. PMID: 29977644.
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    10. Younossi ZM, Afendy A, Stepanova M, Racila A, Nader F, Gomel R, Safer R, Lenderking WR, Skalicky A, Kleinman L, Myers RP, Subramanian GM, McHutchison JG, Levy C, Bowlus CL, Kowdley K, Muir AJ. Development and validation of a primary sclerosing cholangitis-specific patient-reported outcomes instrument: The PSC PRO. Hepatology. 2017 Nov 20. PMID: 29152767.
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    11. Bowlus CL, Olson KA, Gershwin ME. Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Dec; 14(12):749. PMID: 29094722.
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    12. Goldberg DS, Levy C, Yimam K, Gordon SC, Forman L, Verna E, Yu L, Rahimi R, Schwarz K, Eksteen B, Pratt D, Boyer JL, Assis D, Bowlus C. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Is Not Rare Among Blacks in a Multicenter North American Consortium. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Apr; 16(4):591-593. PMID: 29102704.
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    13. Song J, Lleo A, Yang GX, Zhang W, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME, Leung PSC. Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Liver Involvement. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2017 Aug 07. PMID: 28785926.
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    14. Alberts R, de Vries EMG, Goode EC, Jiang X, Sampaziotis F, Rombouts K, Böttcher K, Folseraas T, Weismüller TJ, Mason AL, Wang W, Alexander G, Alvaro D, Bergquist A, Björkström NK, Beuers U, Björnsson E, Boberg KM, Bowlus CL, Bragazzi MC, Carbone M, Chazouillères O, Cheung A, Dalekos G, Eaton J, Eksteen B, Ellinghaus D, Färkkilä M, Festen EAM, Floreani A, Franceschet I, Gotthardt DN, Hirschfield GM, Hoek BV, Holm K, Hohenester S, Hov JR, Imhann F, Invernizzi P, Juran BD, Lenzen H, Lieb W, Liu JZ, Marschall HU, Marzioni M, Melum E, Milkiewicz P, Müller T, Pares A, Rupp C, Rust C, Sandford RN, Schramm C, Schreiber S, Schrumpf E, Silverberg MS, Srivastava B, Sterneck M, Teufel A, Vallier L, Verheij J, Vila AV, Vries B, Zachou K, Chapman RW, Manns MP, Pinzani M, Rushbrook SM, Lazaridis KN, Franke A, Anderson CA, Karlsen TH, Ponsioen CY, Weersma RK. Genetic association analysis identifies variants associated with disease progression in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut. 2017 Aug 04. PMID: 28779025.
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    15. Tanaka T, Zhang W, Sun Y, Shuai Z, Chida AS, Kenny TP, Yang GX, Sanz I, Ansari A, Bowlus CL, Ippolito GC, Coppel RL, Okazaki K, He XS, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. Autoreactive monoclonal antibodies from patients with primary biliary cholangitis recognize environmental xenobiotics. Hepatology. 2017 09; 66(3):885-895. PMID: 28470667.
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    16. Wang Z, Sheng L, Yang Y, Yang F, Xiao X, Hua J, Guo C, Wei Y, Tang R, Miao Q, Zhang J, Li Y, Fang J, Qiu D, Krawitt EL, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME, Wang Q, Ma X. The Management of Autoimmune Hepatitis Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis: Real-World Experience and a Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2017 Jun; 52(3):424-435. PMID: 27515672.
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    17. Floreani A, Tanaka A, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Geoepidemiology and changing mortality in primary biliary cholangitis. J Gastroenterol. 2017 Jun; 52(6):655-662. PMID: 28365879.
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    18. Chang C, Lleo A, Kananurak A, Grizzi F, Tsuneyama K, Invernizzi P, Bevins CL, Bowlus CL. Human ß-Defensin 2 in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar 16; 8(3):e80. PMID: 28300822.
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    19. Weismüller TJ, Trivedi PJ, Bergquist A, Imam M, Lenzen H, Ponsioen CY, Holm K, Gotthardt D, Färkkilä MA, Marschall HU, Thorburn D, Weersma RK, Fevery J, Mueller T, Chazouillères O, Schulze K, Lazaridis KN, Almer S, Pereira SP, Levy C, Mason A, Naess S, Bowlus CL, Floreani A, Halilbasic E, Yimam KK, Milkiewicz P, Beuers U, Huynh DK, Pares A, Manser CN, Dalekos GN, Eksteen B, Invernizzi P, Berg CP, Kirchner GI, Sarrazin C, Zimmer V, Fabris L, Braun F, Marzioni M, Juran BD, Said K, Rupp C, Jokelainen K, Benito de Valle M, Saffioti F, Cheung A, Trauner M, Schramm C, Chapman RW, Karlsen TH, Schrumpf E, Strassburg CP, Manns MP, Lindor KD, Hirschfield GM, Hansen BE, Boberg KM. Patient Age, Sex, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype Associate With Course of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Gastroenterology. 2017 06; 152(8):1975-1984.e8. PMID: 28274849.
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    20. Takakura WR, Tabibian JH, Bowlus CL. The evolution of natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar; 33(2):71-77. PMID: 28030370.
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    21. Ji SG, Juran BD, Mucha S, Folseraas T, Jostins L, Melum E, Kumasaka N, Atkinson EJ, Schlicht EM, Liu JZ, Shah T, Gutierrez-Achury J, Boberg KM, Bergquist A, Vermeire S, Eksteen B, Durie PR, Farkkila M, Müller T, Schramm C, Sterneck M, Weismüller TJ, Gotthardt DN, Ellinghaus D, Braun F, Teufel A, Laudes M, Lieb W, Jacobs G, Beuers U, Weersma RK, Wijmenga C, Marschall HU, Milkiewicz P, Pares A, Kontula K, Chazouillères O, Invernizzi P, Goode E, Spiess K, Moore C, Sambrook J, Ouwehand WH, Roberts DJ, Danesh J, Floreani A, Gulamhusein AF, Eaton JE, Schreiber S, Coltescu C, Bowlus CL, Luketic VA, Odin JA, Chopra KB, Kowdley KV, Chalasani N, Manns MP, Srivastava B, Mells G, Sandford RN, Alexander G, Gaffney DJ, Chapman RW, Hirschfield GM, de Andrade M, Rushbrook SM, Franke A, Karlsen TH, Lazaridis KN, Anderson CA. Genome-wide association study of primary sclerosing cholangitis identifies new risk loci and quantifies the genetic relationship with inflammatory bowel disease. Nat Genet. 2017 Feb; 49(2):269-273. PMID: 27992413.
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    22. Stewart SL, Kwong SL, Bowlus CL, Nguyen TT, Maxwell AE, Bastani R, Chak EW, Chen MS. Racial/ethnic disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment and survival in California, 1988-2012. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct 14; 22(38):8584-8595. PMID: 27784971.
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    23. Bowlus CL. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis in adult patients: clinical utility and patient selection. Hepat Med. 2016; 8:89-95. PMID: 27621676; PMCID: PMC5012622.
    24. Nevens F, Andreone P, Mazzella G, Strasser SI, Bowlus C, Invernizzi P, Drenth JP, Pockros PJ, Regula J, Beuers U, Trauner M, Jones DE, Floreani A, Hohenester S, Luketic V, Shiffman M, van Erpecum KJ, Vargas V, Vincent C, Hirschfield GM, Shah H, Hansen B, Lindor KD, Marschall HU, Kowdley KV, Hooshmand-Rad R, Marmon T, Sheeron S, Pencek R, MacConell L, Pruzanski M, Shapiro D. A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Obeticholic Acid in Primary Biliary Cholangitis. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 18; 375(7):631-43. PMID: 27532829.
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    25. Chak EW, Sarkar S, Bowlus C. Improving Healthcare Systems to Reduce Healthcare Disparities in Viral Hepatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2016 10; 61(10):2776-2783. PMID: 27234269.
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    26. Kuo A, Kuo A, Bowlus CL. Management of symptom complexes in primary biliary cholangitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2016 May; 32(3):204-9. PMID: 26825590.
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    27. Sun Y, Zhang W, Evans JF, Floreani A, Zou Z, Nishio Y, Qi R, Leung PS, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. Autotaxin, Pruritus and Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC). Autoimmun Rev. 2016 Aug; 15(8):795-800. PMID: 27019050.
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    28. Floreani A, Sun Y, Zou ZS, Li B, Cazzagon N, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. Proposed therapies in primary biliary cholangitis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 10(3):371-382. PMID: 26577047; PMCID: PMC4935759 [Available on 01/06/17].
    29. Choi J, Leung PS, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Dec; 49(3):327-32. PMID: 25619872.
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    30. Bowlus CL, Olson KA, Gershwin ME. Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Jan; 13(1):28-37. PMID: 26526122.
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    31. Sarkar S, Bowlus CL. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Multiple Phenotypes, Multiple Approaches. Clin Liver Dis. 2016 Feb; 20(1):67-77. PMID: 26593291; PMCID: PMC4662051 [Available on 02/01/17].
    32. Tomiyama T, Yang GX, Zhao M, Zhang W, Tanaka H, Wang J, Leung PS, Okazaki K, He XS, Lu Q, Coppel RL, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. The modulation of co-stimulatory molecules by circulating exosomes in primary biliary cirrhosis. Cell Mol Immunol. 2017 Mar; 14(3):276-284. PMID: 26388238.
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    33. Floreani A, Franceschet I, Perini L, Cazzagon N, Gershwin ME, Bowlus CL. New therapies for primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Jun; 48(2-3):263-72. PMID: 25331740.
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    34. Rong G, Wang H, Bowlus CL, Wang C, Lu Y, Zeng Z, Qu J, Lou M, Chen Y, An L, Yang Y, Gershwin ME. Incidence and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Jun; 48(2-3):132-41. PMID: 25762349.
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    35. Torruellas C, Bowlus CL. Capsule commentary on Mukhtar et al., Assessment of HBV preventive services in a medically underserved Asian and Pacific Islander population using provider and patient data. J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Jun; 30(6):866. PMID: 25820546; PMCID: PMC4441667.
    36. Mousa HS, Lleo A, Invernizzi P, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. Advances in pharmacotherapy for primary biliary cirrhosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 Apr; 16(5):633-43. PMID: 25543678; PMCID: PMC4591873.
    37. Norman GL, Yang CY, Ostendorff HP, Shums Z, Lim MJ, Wang J, Awad A, Hirschfield GM, Milkiewicz P, Bloch DB, Rothschild KJ, Bowlus CL, Adamopoulos IE, Leung PS, Janssen HJ, Cheung AC, Coltescu C, Gershwin ME. Anti-kelch-like 12 and anti-hexokinase 1: novel autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2015 Feb; 35(2):642-51. PMID: 25243383; PMCID: PMC4305042.
    38. Zhang J, Zhang W, Leung PS, Bowlus CL, Dhaliwal S, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Yang GX, Wang J, Kenny TP, He XS, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. Ongoing activation of autoantigen-specific B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2014 Nov; 60(5):1708-16. PMID: 25043065; PMCID: PMC4211937.
    39. Yang CY, Ma X, Tsuneyama K, Huang S, Takahashi T, Chalasani NP, Bowlus CL, Yang GX, Leung PS, Ansari AA, Wu L, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. IL-12/Th1 and IL-23/Th17 biliary microenvironment in primary biliary cirrhosis: implications for therapy. Hepatology. 2014 May; 59(5):1944-53. PMID: 24375552; PMCID: PMC3999171.
    40. Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. The diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Apr-May; 13(4-5):441-4. PMID: 24424173; PMCID: PMC3987745.
    41. Yimam KK, Bowlus CL. Diagnosis and classification of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Apr-May; 13(4-5):445-50. PMID: 24424180.
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    42. Wang J, Budamagunta MS, Voss JC, Kurth MJ, Lam KS, Lu L, Kenny TP, Bowlus C, Kikuchi K, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Leung PS. Antimitochondrial antibody recognition and structural integrity of the inner lipoyl domain of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 01; 191(5):2126-33. PMID: 23894195; PMCID: PMC3759514.
    43. Chen MS, Fang DM, Stewart SL, Ly MY, Lee S, Dang JH, Nguyen TT, Maxwell AE, Bowlus CL, Bastani R, Nguyen TT. Increasing hepatitis B screening for hmong adults: results from a randomized controlled community-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 May; 22(5):782-91. PMID: 23613027; PMCID: PMC3650126.
    44. Liu JZ, Hov JR, Folseraas T, Ellinghaus E, Rushbrook SM, Doncheva NT, Andreassen OA, Weersma RK, Weismüller TJ, Eksteen B, Invernizzi P, Hirschfield GM, Gotthardt DN, Pares A, Ellinghaus D, Shah T, Juran BD, Milkiewicz P, Rust C, Schramm C, Müller T, Srivastava B, Dalekos G, Nöthen MM, Herms S, Winkelmann J, Mitrovic M, Braun F, Ponsioen CY, Croucher PJ, Sterneck M, Teufel A, Mason AL, Saarela J, Leppa V, Dorfman R, Alvaro D, Floreani A, Onengut-Gumuscu S, Rich SS, Thompson WK, Schork AJ, Næss S, Thomsen I, Mayr G, König IR, Hveem K, Cleynen I, Gutierrez-Achury J, Ricaño-Ponce I, van Heel D, Björnsson E, Sandford RN, Durie PR, Melum E, Vatn MH, Silverberg MS, Duerr RH, Padyukov L, Brand S, Sans M, Annese V, Achkar JP, Boberg KM, Marschall HU, Chazouillères O, Bowlus CL, Wijmenga C, Schrumpf E, Vermeire S, Albrecht M. Dense genotyping of immune-related disease regions identifies nine new risk loci for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Nat Genet. 2013 Jun; 45(6):670-5. PMID: 23603763.
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    45. Chen RC, Naiyanetr P, Shu SA, Wang J, Yang GX, Kenny TP, Guggenheim KC, Butler JD, Bowlus C, Tao MH, Kurth MJ, Ansari AA, Kaplan M, Coppel RL, Lleo A, Gershwin ME, Leung PS. Antimitochondrial antibody heterogeneity and the xenobiotic etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2013 Apr; 57(4):1498-508. PMID: 23184636; PMCID: PMC3601563.
    46. Tanaka H, Leung PS, Kenny TP, Gershwin ME, Bowlus CL. Immunological orchestration of liver fibrosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2012 Dec; 43(3):220-9. PMID: 22695942.
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    47. Kawata K, Kobayashi Y, Gershwin ME, Bowlus CL. The immunophysiology and apoptosis of biliary epithelial cells: primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2012 Dec; 43(3):230-41. PMID: 22689287.
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    48. Hsu L, Bowlus CL, Stewart SL, Nguyen TT, Dang J, Chan B, Chen MS. Electronic messages increase hepatitis B screening in at-risk Asian American patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2013 Mar; 58(3):807-14. PMID: 23073671; PMCID: PMC3578075.
    49. Tsuda M, Moritoki Y, Lian ZX, Zhang W, Yoshida K, Wakabayashi K, Yang GX, Nakatani T, Vierling J, Lindor K, Gershwin ME, Bowlus CL. Biochemical and immunologic effects of rituximab in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and an incomplete response to ursodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology. 2012 Feb; 55(2):512-21. PMID: 22006563.
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    50. Gupta A, Bowlus CL. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: etiopathogenesis and clinical management. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012 Jan 01; 4:1683-705. PMID: 22201985.
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    51. Medici V, Virata MC, Peerson JM, Stabler SP, French SW, Gregory JF, Albanese A, Bowlus CL, Devaraj S, Panacek EA, Richards JR, Halsted CH. S-adenosyl-L-methionine treatment for alcoholic liver disease: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Nov; 35(11):1960-5. PMID: 22044287; PMCID: PMC3315189.
    52. Tsuda M, Ambrosini YM, Zhang W, Yang GX, Ando Y, Rong G, Tsuneyama K, Sumida K, Shimoda S, Bowlus CL, Leung PS, He XS, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Lian ZX, Gershwin ME. Fine phenotypic and functional characterization of effector cluster of differentiation 8 positive T cells in human patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011 Oct; 54(4):1293-302. PMID: 21735469; PMCID: PMC3184190.
    53. Bowlus CL. Cutting edge issues in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011 Oct; 41(2):139-50. PMID: 21170605.
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    54. Toy E, Balasubramanian S, Selmi C, Li CS, Bowlus CL. The prevalence, incidence and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in an ethnically diverse population. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011 Jul 18; 11:83. PMID: 21767410; PMCID: PMC3160402.
    55. Rong G, Zhong R, Lleo A, Leung PS, Bowlus CL, Yang GX, Yang CY, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Cuebas DA, Worman HJ, Invernizzi P, Gores GJ, Norman G, He XS, Gershwin ME. Epithelial cell specificity and apotope recognition by serum autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011 Jul; 54(1):196-203. PMID: 21488079; PMCID: PMC3125447.
    56. Zhang W, Ono Y, Miyamura Y, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME, Maverakis E. T cell clonal expansions detected in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis express CX3CR1. J Autoimmun. 2011 Sep; 37(2):71-8. PMID: 21636249; PMCID: PMC4018194.
    57. Selmi C, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME, Coppel RL. Primary biliary cirrhosis. Lancet. 2011 May 07; 377(9777):1600-9. PMID: 21529926.
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    58. Bowlus CL, Seeley EH, Roder J, Grigorieva J, Roder H, Caprioli RM, Gershwin M. In situ mass spectrometry of autoimmune liver diseases. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011 May; 8(3):237-42. PMID: 21258365; PMCID: PMC3518928.
    59. Bowlus CL, Li CS, Karlsen TH, Lie BA, Selmi C. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in genetically diverse populations listed for liver transplantation: unique clinical and human leukocyte antigen associations. Liver Transpl. 2010 Nov; 16(11):1324-30. PMID: 21031548; PMCID: PMC2967453.
    60. Lleo A, Bowlus CL, Yang GX, Invernizzi P, Podda M, Van de Water J, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Worman HJ, Gores GJ, Gershwin ME. Biliary apotopes and anti-mitochondrial antibodies activate innate immune responses in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2010 Sep; 52(3):987-98. PMID: 20568301; PMCID: PMC2932809.
    61. Medici V, Peerson JM, Stabler SP, French SW, Gregory JF, Virata MC, Albanese A, Bowlus CL, Devaraj S, Panacek EA, Rahim N, Richards JR, Rossaro L, Halsted CH. Impaired homocysteine transsulfuration is an indicator of alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2010 Sep; 53(3):551-7. PMID: 20561703; PMCID: PMC2923260.
    62. Quang YN, Vu J, Yuk J, Li CS, Chen M, Bowlus CL. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in US-born and foreign-born Asian/Pacific Islander college students. J Am Coll Health. 2010; 59(1):37-41. PMID: 20670927; PMCID: PMC2982672.
    63. Logan I, Bowlus CL. The geoepidemiology of autoimmune intestinal diseases. Autoimmun Rev. 2010 Mar; 9(5):A372-8. PMID: 19903540.
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    64. Borchers AT, Shimoda S, Bowlus C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Lymphocyte recruitment and homing to the liver in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Semin Immunopathol. 2009 Sep; 31(3):309-22. PMID: 19533132; PMCID: PMC2758172.
    65. Aron JH, Bowlus CL. The immunobiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Semin Immunopathol. 2009 Sep; 31(3):383-97. PMID: 19468733; PMCID: PMC2758173.
    66. Moritoki Y, Zhang W, Tsuneyama K, Yoshida K, Wakabayashi K, Yang GX, Bowlus C, Ridgway WM, Ueno Y, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Mackay IR, Flavell RA, Gershwin ME, Lian ZX. B cells suppress the inflammatory response in a mouse model of primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2009 Mar; 136(3):1037-47. PMID: 19118554.
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    67. Selmi C, Zuin M, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. Anti-mitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Liver Dis. 2008 Feb; 12(1):173-85, ix. PMID: 18242503.
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    68. Selmi C, Bowlus CL, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the new epidemic and the need for novel nutritional approaches. J Med Food. 2007 Dec; 10(4):563-5. PMID: 18158823.
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    69. Selmi C, Gershwin ME, Lindor KD, Worman HJ, Gold EB, Watnik M, Utts J, Invernizzi P, Kaplan MM, Vierling JM, Bowlus CL, Silveira MG, Bossi I. Quality of life and everyday activities in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2007 Dec; 46(6):1836-43. PMID: 18027862; PMCID: PMC3148769.
    70. Seo S, Maganti K, Khehra M, Ramsamooj R, Tsodikov A, Bowlus C, McVicar J, Zern M, Torok N. De novo nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2007 Jun; 13(6):844-7. PMID: 17029282.
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    71. Aoki CA, Roifman CM, Lian ZX, Bowlus CL, Norman GL, Shoenfeld Y, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. IL-2 receptor alpha deficiency and features of primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 2006 Aug; 27(1):50-3. PMID: 16904870.
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    72. Premkumar K, Min K, Alkan Z, Hawkes WC, Ebeler S, Bowlus CL. The potentiating and protective effects of ascorbate on oxidative stress depend upon the concentration of dietary iron fed C3H mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Apr; 18(4):272-8. PMID: 16860981.
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    73. Aoki CA, Dawson K, Kenny TP, Gershwin ME, Bowlus CL. Gene expression by PBMC in primary sclerosing cholangitis: evidence for dysregulation of immune mediated genes. Clin Dev Immunol. 2006 Jun-Dec; 13(2-4):265-71. PMID: 17162367; PMCID: PMC2270783.
    74. Yen AW, Fancher TL, Bowlus CL. Revisiting hereditary hemochromatosis: current concepts and progress. Am J Med. 2006 May; 119(5):391-9. PMID: 16651049.
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    75. Bowlus CL, Karlsen TH, Broomé U, Thorsby E, Vatn M, Schrumpf E, Lie BA, Boberg KM. Analysis of MAdCAM-1 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms in 365 Scandinavian patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Hepatol. 2006 Nov; 45(5):704-10. PMID: 16750586.
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    76. Lan RY, Cheng C, Lian ZX, Tsuneyama K, Yang GX, Moritoki Y, Chuang YH, Nakamura T, Saito S, Shimoda S, Tanaka A, Bowlus CL, Takano Y, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Liver-targeted and peripheral blood alterations of regulatory T cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2006 Apr; 43(4):729-37. PMID: 16557534.
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    77. Aoki CA, Borchers AT, Li M, Flavell RA, Bowlus CL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2005 Sep; 4(7):450-9. PMID: 16137611.
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    78. Ichiki Y, Bowlus CL, Shimoda S, Ishibashi H, Vierling JM, Gershwin ME. T cell immunity and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Autoimmun Rev. 2006 Jan; 5(1):1-9. PMID: 16338205.
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    79. Bowlus CL, Willner I, Zern MA, Reuben A, Chen P, Holladay B, Xie L, Woolson RF, Strange C. Factors associated with advanced liver disease in adults with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Apr; 3(4):390-6. PMID: 15822045.
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    80. Aoki CA, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. The immunobiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Autoimmun Rev. 2005 Mar; 4(3):137-43. PMID: 15823499.
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    81. Ichiki Y, Aoki CA, Bowlus CL, Shimoda S, Ishibashi H, Gershwin ME. T cell immunity in autoimmune hepatitis. Autoimmun Rev. 2005 Jun; 4(5):315-21. PMID: 15990080.
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    82. Aoki CA, Rossaro L, Ramsamooj R, Brandhagen D, Burritt MF, Bowlus CL. Liver hepcidin mRNA correlates with iron stores, but not inflammation, in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan; 39(1):71-4. PMID: 15599216.
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    83. Cheunsuk S, Lian ZX, Yang GX, Gershwin ME, Gruen JR, Bowlus CL. Prss16 is not required for T-cell development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Jan; 25(2):789-96. PMID: 15632078; PMCID: PMC543420.
    84. Boonjakuakul JK, Syvanen M, Suryaprasad A, Bowlus CL, Solnick JV. Transcription profile of Helicobacter pylori in the human stomach reflects its physiology in vivo. J Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 01; 190(5):946-56. PMID: 15295700.
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    85. Farahani P, Chiu S, Bowlus CL, Boffelli D, Lee E, Fisler JS, Krauss RM, Warden CH. Obesity in BSB mice is correlated with expression of genes for iron homeostasis and leptin. Obes Res. 2004 Feb; 12(2):191-204. PMID: 14981211.
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    86. Premkumar K, Bowlus CL. Ascorbic acid does not increase the oxidative stress induced by dietary iron in C3H mice. J Nutr. 2004 Feb; 134(2):435-8. PMID: 14747685.
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    87. Leong WI, Bowlus CL, Tallkvist J, Lönnerdal B. Iron supplementation during infancy--effects on expression of iron transporters, iron absorption, and iron utilization in rat pups. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec; 78(6):1203-11. PMID: 14668284.
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    88. Wu CT, Eiserich JP, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Balasubramanian S, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME, Van De Water J. Myeloperoxidase-positive inflammatory cells participate in bile duct damage in primary biliary cirrhosis through nitric oxide-mediated reactions. Hepatology. 2003 Oct; 38(4):1018-25. PMID: 14512889.
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    89. Bowlus CL, Lie BA. Discussion of the role of hemochromatosis susceptibility gene mutation in protecting against iron deficiency in celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2003 May; 124(5):1562-3; author reply 1564. PMID: 12744238.
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    90. Bowlus CL. The role of iron in T cell development and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2003 Mar; 2(2):73-8. PMID: 12848962.
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    91. Cheunsuk S, Hsu T, Gershwin ME, Bowlus CL. Analysis of the IDDM candidate gene Prss16 in NOD and NON mice. Dev Immunol. 2002 Dec; 9(4):183-6. PMID: 15144014; PMCID: PMC2276111.
    92. Cheunsuk S, Sparks R, Noveroske JK, Hsu T, Justice MJ, Gershwin ME, Gruen JR, Bowlus CL. Expression, genomic structure and mapping of the thymus specific protease prss16: a candidate gene for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus susceptibility. J Autoimmun. 2002 Jun; 18(4):311-6. PMID: 12144812.
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    93. Bowlus CL, Ahn J, Chu T, Gruen JR. Cloning of a novel MHC-encoded serine peptidase highly expressed by cortical epithelial cells of the thymus. Cell Immunol. 1999 Sep 15; 196(2):80-6. PMID: 10527559.
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