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Patrick S Leung

Title(s)Adjunct Professor, Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology
SchoolUniversity of California, Davis
Phone530-754-4943
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    PLASMABLASTS, XENOBIOTICS AND LOSS OF TOLERANCE
    NIH/NIAID R21AI115120Dec 1, 2014 - Nov 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    2006 Electronic presentation - split rate modules
    NIH/NIAID R21AI085022Jun 1, 2010 - May 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IG REPERTOIRE OF COMBINATORIAL AUTOANTIBODIES IN PBC
    NIH/NIAID R29AI031585Jul 1, 1993 - Jun 30, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Lleo A, Leung PSC, Hirschfield GM, Gershwin EM. The Pathogenesis of Primary Biliary Cholangitis: A Comprehensive Review. Semin Liver Dis. 2019 Sep 19. PMID: 31537031.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Wai CYY, Leung NYH, Leung PSC, Chu KH. Modulating Shrimp Tropomyosin-Mediated Allergy: Hypoallergen DNA Vaccines Induce Regulatory T Cells to Reduce Hypersensitivity in Mouse Model. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 19; 20(18). PMID: 31546958.
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    3. Song J, Li Y, Bowlus CL, Yang G, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. Cholangiocarcinoma in Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): a Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019 Aug 28. PMID: 31463807.
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    4. Leung NYH, Wai CYY, Chu KH, Leung PSC. Mimotope-based allergen-specific immunotherapy: ready for prime time? Cell Mol Immunol. 2019 Aug 20. PMID: 31431690.
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    5. Wai CYY, Leung NYH, Leung PSC, Chu KH. Immunotherapy of Food Allergy: a Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019 Aug; 57(1):55-73. PMID: 28929421.
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    6. Shu SA, Yuen AWT, Woo E, Chu KH, Kwan HS, Yang GX, Yang Y, Leung PSC. Microbiota and Food Allergy. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019 Aug; 57(1):83-97. PMID: 30564985.
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    7. Tang R, Wang ZX, Ji CM, Leung PSC, Woo E, Chang C, Wang M, Liu B, Wei JF, Sun JL. Regional Differences in Food Allergies. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019 Aug; 57(1):98-110. PMID: 30612248.
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    8. Guan K, Liu B, Wang M, Li Z, Chang C, Cui L, Wang RQ, Wen LP, Leung PSC, Wei JF, Sun JL. Principles of Allergen Immunotherapy and Its Clinical Application in China: Contrasts and Comparisons with the USA. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019 Aug; 57(1):128-143. PMID: 31243705.
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    9. Das T, Bergen IM, Koudstaal T, van Hulst JAC, van Loo G, Boonstra A, Vanwolleghem T, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME, Hendriks RW, Kool M. DNGR1-mediated deletion of A20/Tnfaip3 in dendritic cells alters T and B-cell homeostasis and promotes autoimmune liver pathology. J Autoimmun. 2019 Aug; 102:167-178. PMID: 31151831.
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    10. Tanaka A, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. The genetics of primary biliary cholangitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar; 35(2):93-98. PMID: 30601157.
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    11. Sun C, Xiao X, Yan L, Sheng L, Wang Q, Jiang P, Lian M, Li Y, Wei Y, Zhang J, Chen Y, Li B, Li Y, Huang B, Li Y, Peng Y, Chen X, Fang J, Qiu D, Hua J, Tang R, Leung P, Gershwin ME, Miao Q, Ma X. Histologically proven AMA positive primary biliary cholangitis but normal serum alkaline phosphatase: Is alkaline phosphatase truly a surrogate marker? J Autoimmun. 2019 May; 99:33-38. PMID: 30709684.
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    12. Li Y, Tang R, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME, Ma X. Proteomics in Primary Biliary Cholangitis. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1981:163-173. PMID: 31016654.
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    13. Song J, Lleo A, Yang GX, Zhang W, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME, Leung PSC. Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Liver Involvement. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Dec; 55(3):340-351. PMID: 28785926.
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    14. Moritoki Y, Tsuneyama K, Nakamura Y, Kikuchi K, Shiota A, Ohsugi Y, Lian ZX, Zhang W, Yang GX, Ueki S, Takeda M, Omokawa A, Saga T, Saga A, Watanabe D, Miura M, Ueno Y, Leung PSC, Tanaka A, Gershwin ME, Hirokawa M. Anti-drug Antibodies Against a Novel Humanized Anti-CD20 Antibody Impair Its Therapeutic Effect on Primary Biliary Cholangitis in Human CD20- and Fc?R-Expressing Mice. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:2534. PMID: 30450101.
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    15. Floreani A, Restrepo-Jiménez P, Secchi MF, De Martin S, Leung PSC, Krawitt E, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME, Anaya JM. Etiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis. J Autoimmun. 2018 12; 95:133-143. PMID: 30385083.
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    16. Rojas M, Restrepo-Jiménez P, Monsalve DM, Pacheco Y, Acosta-Ampudia Y, Ramírez-Santana C, Leung PSC, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Anaya JM. Molecular mimicry and autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2018 12; 95:100-123. PMID: 30509385.
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    17. Guo C, Guo G, Zhou X, Chen Y, Han Z, Yang C, Zhao S, Su H, Lian Z, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME, Zhou X, Han Y. Long-term Outcomes of Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 May; 17(6):1175-1182.e2. PMID: 30613001.
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    18. Tong WS, Yuen AW, Wai CY, Leung NY, Chu KH, Leung PS. Diagnosis of fish and shellfish allergies. J Asthma Allergy. 2018; 11:247-260. PMID: 30323632.
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    19. Hsueh YH, Chen HW, Syu BJ, Lin CI, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME, Chuang YH. Endogenous IL-10 maintains immune tolerance but IL-10 gene transfer exacerbates autoimmune cholangitis. J Autoimmun. 2018 12; 95:159-170. PMID: 30274824.
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    20. Tanaka A, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. Pathogen infections and primary biliary cholangitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2019 01; 195(1):25-34. PMID: 30099750.
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    21. Reuveni D, Gore Y, Leung PSC, Lichter Y, Moshkovits I, Kaminitz A, Brazowski E, Lefebvre E, Vig P, Varol C, Halpern Z, Shibolet O, Gershwin ME, Zigmond E. The Critical Role of Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 2-Positive Monocytes in Autoimmune Cholangitis. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1852. PMID: 30158929.
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    22. Tanaka A, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. The Genetics and Epigenetics of Primary Biliary Cholangitis. Clin Liver Dis. 2018 08; 22(3):443-455. PMID: 30259846.
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    23. Tanaka A, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. Evolution of our understanding of PBC. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Jun - Aug; 34-35:3-9. PMID: 30343708.
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    24. Hintermann E, Bayer M, Conti CB, Fuchs S, Fausther M, Leung PS, Aurrand-Lions M, Taubert R, Pfeilschifter JM, Friedrich-Rust M, Schuppan D, Dranoff JA, Gershwin ME, Manns MP, Imhof BA, Christen U. Junctional adhesion molecules JAM-B and JAM-C promote autoimmune-mediated liver fibrosis in mice. J Autoimmun. 2018 07; 91:83-96. PMID: 29753567.
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    25. Cretney E, Leung PS, Trezise S, Newman DM, Rankin LC, Teh CE, Putoczki TL, Gray DH, Belz GT, Mielke LA, Dias S, Nutt SL. Characterization of Blimp-1 function in effector regulatory T cells. J Autoimmun. 2018 07; 91:73-82. PMID: 29724515.
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    26. Yao M, Wang L, Leung PSC, Li Y, Liu S, Wang L, Guo X, Zhou G, Yan Y, Guan G, Chen X, Bowlus CL, Liu T, Jia J, Gershwin ME, Ma X, Zhao J, Lu F. The Clinical Significance of GP73 in Immunologically Mediated Chronic Liver Diseases: Experimental Data and Literature Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Apr; 54(2):282-294. PMID: 29256057.
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    27. Jiang X, Lian M, Li Y, Zhang W, Wang Q, Wei Y, Zhang J, Chen W, Xiao X, Miao Q, Bian Z, Qiu D, Fang J, Ansari AA, Leung PSC, Coppel RL, Tang R, Gershwin ME, Ma X. The immunobiology of mucosal-associated invariant T cell (MAIT) function in primary biliary cholangitis: Regulation by cholic acid-induced Interleukin-7. J Autoimmun. 2018 06; 90:64-75. PMID: 29429758.
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    28. Bae HR, Hodge DL, Yang GX, Leung PSC, Chodisetti SB, Valencia JC, Sanford M, Fenimore JM, Rahman ZSM, Tsuneyama K, Norman GL, Gershwin ME, Young HA. The interplay of type I and type II interferons in murine autoimmune cholangitis as a basis for sex-biased autoimmunity. Hepatology. 2018 04; 67(4):1408-1419. PMID: 28921595.
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    29. Zhang W, Zhang R, Zhang J, Sun Y, Leung PS, Yang GX, Shuai Z, Ridgway WM, Gershwin ME. Proteomic analysis reveals distinctive protein profiles involved in CD8+ T cell-mediated murine autoimmune cholangitis. Cell Mol Immunol. 2018 08; 15(8):756-767. PMID: 29375127.
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    30. Tanaka A, Leung PS, Gershwin ME. Environmental basis of primary biliary cholangitis. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2018 01; 243(2):184-189. PMID: 29307284.
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    31. Yang SH, Gao CY, Li L, Chang C, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME, Lian ZX. The molecular basis of immune regulation in autoimmunity. Clin Sci (Lond). 2018 01 16; 132(1):43-67. PMID: 29305419.
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    32. Guo CJ, Leung PSC, Zhang W, Ma X, Gershwin ME. The immunobiology and clinical features of type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1). Autoimmun Rev. 2018 Jan; 17(1):78-85. PMID: 29108822.
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    33. Leung NYH, Wai CYY, Shu SA, Chang CC, Chu KH, Leung PSC. Low-Dose Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy Induces Tolerance in a Murine Model of Shrimp Allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2017; 174(2):86-96. PMID: 29065408.
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    34. Tanaka A, Leung PSC, Young HA, Gershwin ME. Therapeutic and immunological interventions in primary biliary cholangitis: from mouse models to humans. Arch Med Sci. 2018 Jun; 14(4):930-940. PMID: 30002712.
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    35. Zhang H, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME, Ma X. How the biliary tree maintains immune tolerance? Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018 04; 1864(4 Pt B):1367-1373. PMID: 28844953.
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    36. Tanaka T, Zhang W, Sun Y, Shuai Z, Chida AS, Kenny TP, Yang GX, Sanz I, Ansari A, Bowlus CL, Ippolito GC, Coppel RL, Okazaki K, He XS, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. Autoreactive monoclonal antibodies from patients with primary biliary cholangitis recognize environmental xenobiotics. Hepatology. 2017 09; 66(3):885-895. PMID: 28470667.
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    37. Li Y, Tang R, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME, Ma X. Bile acids and intestinal microbiota in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases. Autoimmun Rev. 2017 Sep; 16(9):885-896. PMID: 28698093.
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    38. Tanakaa A, Leung PS, Young HA, Gershwin ME. Toward solving the etiological mystery of primary biliary cholangitis. Hepatol Commun. 2017 Jun; 1(4):275-287. PMID: 29057387.
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    39. Ray JL, Kopec AK, Joshi N, Cline-Fedewa H, Lash LH, Williams KJ, Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Luyendyk JP. Trichloroethylene Exposure Reduces Liver Injury in a Mouse Model of Primary Biliary Cholangitis. Toxicol Sci. 2017 04 01; 156(2):428-437. PMID: 28115651.
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    40. Shuai Z, Wang J, Badamagunta M, Choi J, Yang G, Zhang W, Kenny TP, Guggenheim K, Kurth MJ, Ansari AA, Voss J, Coppel RL, Invernizzi P, Leung PSC, Gershwin ME. The fingerprint of antimitochondrial antibodies and the etiology of primary biliary cholangitis. Hepatology. 2017 05; 65(5):1670-1682. PMID: 28100006.
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    41. Bae HR, Leung PS, Tsuneyama K, Valencia JC, Hodge DL, Kim S, Back T, Karwan M, Merchant AS, Baba N, Feng D, Park O, Gao B, Yang GX, Gershwin ME, Young HA. Chronic expression of interferon-gamma leads to murine autoimmune cholangitis with a female predominance. Hepatology. 2016 10; 64(4):1189-201. PMID: 27178326.
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    42. Yang GX, Sun Y, Tsuneyama K, Zhang W, Leung PS, He XS, Ansari AA, Bowlus C, Ridgway WM, Gershwin ME. Endogenous interleukin-22 protects against inflammatory bowel disease but not autoimmune cholangitis in dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 2016 08; 185(2):154-64. PMID: 27148790.
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    43. Floreani A, Leung PS, Gershwin ME. Environmental Basis of Autoimmunity. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2016 Jun; 50(3):287-300. PMID: 25998909.
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    44. Leung PS, Choi J, Yang G, Woo E, Kenny TP, Gershwin ME. A contemporary perspective on the molecular characteristics of mitochondrial autoantigens and diagnosis in primary biliary cholangitis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2016 06; 16(6):697-705. PMID: 26953925.
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    45. Sun Y, Zhang W, Evans JF, Floreani A, Zou Z, Nishio Y, Qi R, Leung PS, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. Autotaxin, Pruritus and Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC). Autoimmun Rev. 2016 Aug; 15(8):795-800. PMID: 27019050.
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    46. Shuai Z, Leung MW, He X, Zhang W, Yang G, Leung PS, Eric Gershwin M. Adaptive immunity in the liver. Cell Mol Immunol. 2016 05; 13(3):354-68. PMID: 26996069.
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    47. Arsenijevic A, Milovanovic M, Milovanovic J, Stojanovic B, Zdravkovic N, Leung PS, Liu FT, Gershwin ME, Lukic ML. Deletion of Galectin-3 Enhances Xenobiotic Induced Murine Primary Biliary Cholangitis by Facilitating Apoptosis of BECs and Release of Autoantigens. Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 21; 6:23348. PMID: 26996208.
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    48. Wai CY, Leung NY, Leung PS, Chu KH. T cell epitope immunotherapy ameliorates allergic responses in a murine model of shrimp allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2016 Mar; 46(3):491-503. PMID: 26610061.
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    49. Choi J, Selmi C, Leung PS, Kenny TP, Roskams T, Gershwin ME. Chemokine and chemokine receptors in autoimmunity: the case of primary biliary cholangitis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2016 Jun; 12(6):661-72. PMID: 26821815.
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    50. Vogel CF, Chang WL, Kado S, McCulloh K, Vogel H, Wu D, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Yang G, Leung PS, Matsumura F, Gershwin ME. Transgenic Overexpression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor (AhRR) and AhR-Mediated Induction of CYP1A1, Cytokines, and Acute Toxicity. Environ Health Perspect. 2016 07; 124(7):1071-83. PMID: 26862745.
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    51. Wang J, Yang G, Dubrovsky AM, Choi J, Leung PS. Xenobiotics and loss of tolerance in primary biliary cholangitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan 07; 22(1):338-48. PMID: 26755880.
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    52. Choi J, Leung PS, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Dec; 49(3):327-32. PMID: 25619872.
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    53. Tana MM, Shums Z, Milo J, Norman GL, Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Noureddin M, Kleiner DE, Zhao X, Heller T, Hoofnagle JH. The Significance of Autoantibody Changes Over Time in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2015 Oct; 144(4):601-6. PMID: 26386081.
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    54. Shu SA, Wang J, Tao MH, Leung PS. Gene Therapy for Autoimmune Disease. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Oct; 49(2):163-76. PMID: 25277817.
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    55. Tomiyama T, Yang GX, Zhao M, Zhang W, Tanaka H, Wang J, Leung PS, Okazaki K, He XS, Lu Q, Coppel RL, Bowlus CL, Gershwin ME. The modulation of co-stimulatory molecules by circulating exosomes in primary biliary cirrhosis. Cell Mol Immunol. 2017 Mar; 14(3):276-284. PMID: 26388238.
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    56. Leung NY, Wai CY, Ho MH, Liu R, Lam KS, Wang JJ, Shu SA, Chu KH, Leung PS. Screening and identification of mimotopes of the major shrimp allergen tropomyosin using one-bead-one-compound peptide libraries. Cell Mol Immunol. 2017 Mar; 14(3):308-318. PMID: 26364917.
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    57. Lam YF, Tong KK, Kwan KM, Tsuneyama K, Shu SA, Leung PS, Chu KH. Gastrointestinal Immune Response to the Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin: Histological and Immunological Analysis in an Animal Model of Shrimp Tropomyosin Hypersensitivity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2015; 167(1):29-40. PMID: 26112225.
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    58. Katsumi T, Tomita K, Leung PS, Yang GX, Gershwin ME, Ueno Y. Animal models of primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Jun; 48(2-3):142-53. PMID: 25771770.
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    59. Floreani A, Spinazzè A, Caballeria L, Reig A, Cazzagon N, Franceschet I, Buja A, Furlan P, Harada K, Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Pares A. Extrahepatic malignancies in primary biliary cirrhosis: a comparative study at two European centers. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Jun; 48(2-3):254-62. PMID: 25205363.
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    60. Tanaka H, Yang GX, Tomiyama T, Tsuneyama K, Zhang W, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Joh T, Nadler SG, Ansari AA, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Immunological potential of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin in murine autoimmune cholangitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015 Jun; 180(3):371-82. PMID: 25581259.
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    61. Chang CH, Chen YC, Zhang W, Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Chuang YH. Innate immunity drives the initiation of a murine model of primary biliary cirrhosis. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0121320. PMID: 25807531.
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    62. Wai CY, Leung NY, Ho MH, Gershwin LJ, Shu SA, Leung PS, Chu KH. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity. PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e111649. PMID: 25365343.
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    63. Tanaka H, Zhang W, Yang GX, Ando Y, Tomiyama T, Tsuneyama K, Leung P, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Lian ZX, Ridgway WM, Joh T, Gershwin ME. Successful immunotherapy of autoimmune cholangitis by adoptive transfer of forkhead box protein 3(+) regulatory T cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014 Nov; 178(2):253-61. PMID: 25041369.
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    64. Islam N, Leung PS, Huntley AC, Gershwin ME. The autoimmune basis of alopecia areata: a comprehensive review. Autoimmun Rev. 2015 Feb; 14(2):81-9. PMID: 25315746.
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    65. Norman GL, Yang CY, Ostendorff HP, Shums Z, Lim MJ, Wang J, Awad A, Hirschfield GM, Milkiewicz P, Bloch DB, Rothschild KJ, Bowlus CL, Adamopoulos IE, Leung PS, Janssen HJ, Cheung AC, Coltescu C, Gershwin ME. Anti-kelch-like 12 and anti-hexokinase 1: novel autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2015 Feb; 35(2):642-51. PMID: 25243383.
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    66. Liu B, Shu S, Kenny TP, Chang C, Leung PS. Stem cell therapy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a comprehensive review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2014 Oct; 47(2):244-57. PMID: 25146442.
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    67. Zhang J, Zhang W, Leung PS, Bowlus CL, Dhaliwal S, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Yang GX, Wang J, Kenny TP, He XS, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. Ongoing activation of autoantigen-specific B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2014 Nov; 60(5):1708-16. PMID: 25043065.
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    68. Chang CH, Chen YC, Yu YH, Tao MH, Leung PS, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Chuang YH. Innate immunity drives xenobiotic-induced murine autoimmune cholangitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014 Aug; 177(2):373-80. PMID: 24547942.
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    69. Lleo A, Zhang W, McDonald WH, Seeley EH, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Adams DH, Afford S, Invernizzi P, Gershwin ME. Shotgun proteomics: identification of unique protein profiles of apoptotic bodies from biliary epithelial cells. Hepatology. 2014 Oct; 60(4):1314-23. PMID: 24841946.
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    70. Wang J, Yang GX, Tsuneyama K, Gershwin ME, Ridgway WM, Leung PS. Animal models of primary biliary cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2014 Aug; 34(3):285-96. PMID: 25057952.
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    71. Leung NY, Wai CY, Shu S, Wang J, Kenny TP, Chu KH, Leung PS. Current immunological and molecular biological perspectives on seafood allergy: a comprehensive review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2014 Jun; 46(3):180-97. PMID: 23242979.
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    72. Leung PS, Shu SA, Chang C. The changing geoepidemiology of food allergies. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2014 Jun; 46(3):169-79. PMID: 24535418.
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    73. Shu SA, Chang C, Leung PS. Common methodologies in the evaluation of food allergy: pitfalls and prospects of food allergy prevalence studies. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2014 Jun; 46(3):198-210. PMID: 23179516.
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    74. Yang CY, Ma X, Tsuneyama K, Huang S, Takahashi T, Chalasani NP, Bowlus CL, Yang GX, Leung PS, Ansari AA, Wu L, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. IL-12/Th1 and IL-23/Th17 biliary microenvironment in primary biliary cirrhosis: implications for therapy. Hepatology. 2014 May; 59(5):1944-53. PMID: 24375552.
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    75. von Scheidt B, Leung PS, Yong MC, Zhang Y, Towne JE, Smyth MJ, Teng MW. Combined anti-CD40 and anti-IL-23 monoclonal antibody therapy effectively suppresses tumor growth and metastases. Cancer Res. 2014 May 01; 74(9):2412-21. PMID: 24556719.
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    76. Huang W, Kachapati K, Adams D, Wu Y, Leung PS, Yang GX, Zhang W, Ansari AA, Flavell RA, Gershwin ME, Ridgway WM. Murine autoimmune cholangitis requires two hits: cytotoxic KLRG1(+) CD8 effector cells and defective T regulatory cells. J Autoimmun. 2014 May; 50:123-34. PMID: 24556277.
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    77. Wang JJ, Yang GX, Zhang WC, Lu L, Tsuneyama K, Kronenberg M, Véla JL, Lopez-Hoyos M, He XS, Ridgway WM, Leung PS, Gershwin ME. Escherichia coli infection induces autoimmune cholangitis and anti-mitochondrial antibodies in non-obese diabetic (NOD).B6 (Idd10/Idd18) mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014 Feb; 175(2):192-201. PMID: 24128311.
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    78. Vogel CF, Khan EM, Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Chang WL, Wu D, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Hoffmann A, Denison MS. Cross-talk between aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the inflammatory response: a role for nuclear factor-?B. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jan 17; 289(3):1866-75. PMID: 24302727.
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    79. Tanaka H, Yang GX, Iwakoshi N, Knechtle SJ, Kawata K, Tsuneyama K, Leung P, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Joh T, Bowlus C, Gershwin ME. Anti-CD40 ligand monoclonal antibody delays the progression of murine autoimmune cholangitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Dec; 174(3):364-71. PMID: 23981074.
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    80. Yang CY, Leung PS, Adamopoulos IE, Gershwin ME. The implication of vitamin D and autoimmunity: a comprehensive review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013 Oct; 45(2):217-26. PMID: 23359064.
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    81. Kawata K, Tsuda M, Yang GX, Zhang W, Tanaka H, Tsuneyama K, Leung P, He XS, Knechtle S, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Identification of potential cytokine pathways for therapeutic intervention in murine primary biliary cirrhosis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74225. PMID: 24040208.
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    82. Wang J, Budamagunta MS, Voss JC, Kurth MJ, Lam KS, Lu L, Kenny TP, Bowlus C, Kikuchi K, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Leung PS. Antimitochondrial antibody recognition and structural integrity of the inner lipoyl domain of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 01; 191(5):2126-33. PMID: 23894195.
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    83. Kawata K, Yang GX, Ando Y, Tanaka H, Zhang W, Kobayashi Y, Tsuneyama K, Leung PS, Lian ZX, Ridgway WM, Ansari AA, He XS, Gershwin ME. Clonality, activated antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, and development of autoimmune cholangitis in dnTGFßRII mice. Hepatology. 2013 Sep; 58(3):1094-104. PMID: 23532950.
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    84. Gershwin ME, Leung PS, Ridgway WM, Coppel RL, Ansari AA. Reply: To PMID 22996325. Hepatology. 2013 Aug; 58(2):830. PMID: 23315750.
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    85. Rong GH, Yang GX, Ando Y, Zhang W, He XS, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Zhong R, Gershwin ME. Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells engulf blebs from their apoptotic peers. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Apr; 172(1):95-103. PMID: 23480189.
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    86. Ando Y, Yang GX, Kenny TP, Kawata K, Zhang W, Huang W, Leung PS, Lian ZX, Okazaki K, Ansari AA, He XS, Invernizzi P, Ridgway WM, Lu Q, Gershwin ME. Overexpression of microRNA-21 is associated with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines in dominant-negative TGF-ß receptor type II mouse. J Autoimmun. 2013 Mar; 41:111-9. PMID: 23395552.
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    87. Tsuda M, Zhang W, Yang GX, Tsuneyama K, Ando Y, Kawata K, Park O, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Ridgway WM, Gao B, Lian ZX, Flavell R, He XS, Gershwin ME. Deletion of interleukin (IL)-12p35 induces liver fibrosis in dominant-negative TGFß receptor type II mice. Hepatology. 2013 Feb; 57(2):806-16. PMID: 22576253.
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    88. Dhirapong A, Yang GX, Nadler S, Zhang W, Tsuneyama K, Leung P, Knechtle S, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Liu FT, He XS, Gershwin ME. Therapeutic effect of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4/immunoglobulin on a murine model of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2013 Feb; 57(2):708-15. PMID: 22996325.
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    89. Chen RC, Naiyanetr P, Shu SA, Wang J, Yang GX, Kenny TP, Guggenheim KC, Butler JD, Bowlus C, Tao MH, Kurth MJ, Ansari AA, Kaplan M, Coppel RL, Lleo A, Gershwin ME, Leung PS. Antimitochondrial antibody heterogeneity and the xenobiotic etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2013 Apr; 57(4):1498-508. PMID: 23184636.
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    90. Leung PS, Wang J, Naiyanetr P, Kenny TP, Lam KS, Kurth MJ, Gershwin ME. Environment and primary biliary cirrhosis: electrophilic drugs and the induction of AMA. J Autoimmun. 2013 Mar; 41:79-86. PMID: 23352659.
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    91. Tanaka H, Leung PS, Kenny TP, Gershwin ME, Bowlus CL. Immunological orchestration of liver fibrosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2012 Dec; 43(3):220-9. PMID: 22695942.
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    92. Zhang W, Tsuda M, Yang GX, Tsuneyama K, He XS, Ansari AA, Ridgway WM, Coppel RL, Lian ZX, Leung PS, Gershwin ME. Lymphoma-like T cell infiltration in liver is associated with increased copy number of dominant negative form of TGFß receptor II. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49413. PMID: 23145171.
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    93. Ando Y, Yang GX, Tsuda M, Kawata K, Zhang W, Nakajima T, Tsuneyama K, Leung P, Lian ZX, Okazaki K, Ridgway WM, Norman GL, Ansari AA, He XS, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. The immunobiology of colitis and cholangitis in interleukin-23p19 and interleukin-17A deleted dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II mice. Hepatology. 2012 Oct; 56(4):1418-26. PMID: 22532156.
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    94. Leung PS, Lam K, Kurth MJ, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Xenobiotics and autoimmunity: does acetaminophen cause primary biliary cirrhosis? Trends Mol Med. 2012 Oct; 18(10):577-82. PMID: 22920894.
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    95. Miller FW, Pollard KM, Parks CG, Germolec DR, Leung PS, Selmi C, Humble MC, Rose NR. Criteria for environmentally associated autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 2012 Dec; 39(4):253-8. PMID: 22771005.
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    96. Selmi C, Leung PS, Sherr DH, Diaz M, Nyland JF, Monestier M, Rose NR, Gershwin ME. Mechanisms of environmental influence on human autoimmunity: a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences expert panel workshop. J Autoimmun. 2012 Dec; 39(4):272-84. PMID: 22749494.
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    97. Kawata K, Illarionov P, Yang GX, Kenny TP, Zhang W, Tsuda M, Ando Y, Leung PS, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Mincle and human B cell function. J Autoimmun. 2012 12; 39(4):315-22. PMID: 22698596.
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    98. Shimoda S, Tsuneyama K, Kikuchi K, Harada K, Nakanuma Y, Nakamura M, Ishibashi H, Hisamoto S, Niiro H, Leung PS, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Akashi K. The role of natural killer (NK) and NK T cells in the loss of tolerance in murine primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012 Jun; 168(3):279-84. PMID: 22519590.
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    99. Yang CY, Leung PS, Yang GX, Kenny TP, Zhang W, Coppel R, Norman GL, Ansari AA, Mackay IR, Worman HJ, Gershwin ME. Epitope-specific anti-nuclear antibodies are expressed in a mouse model of primary biliary cirrhosis and are cytokine-dependent. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012 Jun; 168(3):261-7. PMID: 22519587.
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    100. Duarte-Rey C, Bogdanos D, Yang CY, Roberts K, Leung PS, Anaya JM, Worman HJ, Gershwin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis and the nuclear pore complex. Autoimmun Rev. 2012 Oct; 11(12):898-902. PMID: 22487189.
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    101. Leung PS, Yang GX, Dhirapong A, Tsuneyama K, Ridgway WM, Gershwin ME. Animal models of primary biliary cirrhosis: materials and methods. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 900:291-316. PMID: 22933075.
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    102. Duarte-Rey C, Bogdanos DP, Leung PS, Anaya JM, Gershwin ME. IgM predominance in autoimmune disease: genetics and gender. Autoimmun Rev. 2012 May; 11(6-7):A404-12. PMID: 22178509.
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    103. Tsuda M, Ambrosini YM, Zhang W, Yang GX, Ando Y, Rong G, Tsuneyama K, Sumida K, Shimoda S, Bowlus CL, Leung PS, He XS, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Lian ZX, Gershwin ME. Fine phenotypic and functional characterization of effector cluster of differentiation 8 positive T cells in human patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011 Oct; 54(4):1293-302. PMID: 21735469.
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    104. Ambrosini YM, Yang GX, Zhang W, Tsuda M, Shu S, Tsuneyama K, Leung PS, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. The multi-hit hypothesis of primary biliary cirrhosis: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and murine autoimmune cholangitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011 Oct; 166(1):110-20. PMID: 21910728.
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    105. Huang YH, Fang CC, Tsuneyama K, Chou HY, Pan WY, Shih YM, Wu PY, Chen Y, Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Tao MH. A murine model of hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma generated by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery. Int J Oncol. 2011 Dec; 39(6):1511-9. PMID: 21805030.
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    106. Naiyanetr P, Butler JD, Meng L, Pfeiff J, Kenny TP, Guggenheim KG, Reiger R, Lam K, Kurth MJ, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, López-Hoyos M, Gershwin ME, Leung PS. Electrophile-modified lipoic derivatives of PDC-E2 elicits anti-mitochondrial antibody reactivity. J Autoimmun. 2011 Nov; 37(3):209-16. PMID: 21763105.
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    107. Rong G, Zhong R, Lleo A, Leung PS, Bowlus CL, Yang GX, Yang CY, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Cuebas DA, Worman HJ, Invernizzi P, Gores GJ, Norman G, He XS, Gershwin ME. Epithelial cell specificity and apotope recognition by serum autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011 Jul; 54(1):196-203. PMID: 21488079.
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    108. Shimoda S, Harada K, Niiro H, Shirabe K, Taketomi A, Maehara Y, Tsuneyama K, Nakanuma Y, Leung P, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Akashi K. Interaction between Toll-like receptors and natural killer cells in the destruction of bile ducts in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2011 Apr; 53(4):1270-81. PMID: 21400555.
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    109. Wu SJ, Yang YH, Tsuneyama K, Leung PS, Illarionov P, Gershwin ME, Chuang YH. Innate immunity and primary biliary cirrhosis: activated invariant natural killer T cells exacerbate murine autoimmune cholangitis and fibrosis. Hepatology. 2011 Mar; 53(3):915-25. PMID: 21374662.
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    110. Selmi C, Leung PS, Fischer L, German B, Yang CY, Kenny TP, Cysewski GR, Gershwin ME. The effects of Spirulina on anemia and immune function in senior citizens. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011 May; 8(3):248-54. PMID: 21278762.
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    111. Stravitz RT, Lefkowitch JH, Fontana RJ, Gershwin ME, Leung PS, Sterling RK, Manns MP, Norman GL, Lee WM. Autoimmune acute liver failure: proposed clinical and histological criteria. Hepatology. 2011 Feb; 53(2):517-26. PMID: 21274872.
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    112. Yang GX, Wu Y, Tsukamoto H, Leung PS, Lian ZX, Rainbow DB, Hunter KM, Morris GA, Lyons PA, Peterson LB, Wicker LS, Gershwin ME, Ridgway WM. CD8 T cells mediate direct biliary ductule damage in nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease. J Immunol. 2011 Jan 15; 186(2):1259-67. PMID: 21169553.
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    113. Liu H, Norman GL, Shums Z, Worman HJ, Krawitt EL, Bizzaro N, Vergani D, Bogdanos DP, Dalekos GN, Milkiewicz P, Czaja AJ, Heathcote EJ, Hirschfield GM, Tan EM, Miyachi K, Bignotto M, Battezzati PM, Lleo A, Leung PS, Podda M, Gershwin ME, Invernizzi P. PBC screen: an IgG/IgA dual isotype ELISA detecting multiple mitochondrial and nuclear autoantibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 2010 Dec; 35(4):436-42. PMID: 20932720.
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    114. Tsuda M, Torgerson TR, Selmi C, Gambineri E, Carneiro-Sampaio M, Mannurita SC, Leung PS, Norman GL, Gershwin ME. The spectrum of autoantibodies in IPEX syndrome is broad and includes anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies. J Autoimmun. 2010 Nov; 35(3):265-8. PMID: 20650610.
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    115. Freeman SL, Fisher L, German JB, Leung PS, Prince H, Selmi C, Naguwa SM, Gershwin ME. Dairy proteins and the response to pneumovax in senior citizens: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Mar; 1190:97-103. PMID: 20388140.
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    116. Leung PS, Shu SA, Kenny TP, Wu PY, Tao MH. Development and validation of gene therapies in autoimmune diseases: Epidemiology to animal models. Autoimmun Rev. 2010 Mar; 9(5):A400-5. PMID: 20035901.
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    117. Leung PS, Dhirapong A, Wu PY, Tao MH. Gene therapy in autoimmune diseases: challenges and opportunities. Autoimmun Rev. 2010 Jan; 9(3):170-4. PMID: 19854300.
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    118. Padgett KA, Lan RY, Leung PC, Lleo A, Dawson K, Pfeiff J, Mao TK, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis is associated with altered hepatic microRNA expression. J Autoimmun. 2009 May-Jun; 32(3-4):246-53. PMID: 19345069.
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    119. Wakabayashi K, Yoshida K, Leung PS, Moritoki Y, Yang GX, Tsuneyama K, Lian ZX, Hibi T, Ansari AA, Wicker LS, Ridgway WM, Coppel RL, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. Induction of autoimmune cholangitis in non-obese diabetic (NOD).1101 mice following a chemical xenobiotic immunization. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Mar; 155(3):577-86. PMID: 19094117.
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    120. Dhirapong A, Lleo A, Leung P, Gershwin ME, Liu FT. The immunological potential of galectin-1 and -3. Autoimmun Rev. 2009 Mar; 8(5):360-3. PMID: 19064001.
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    121. Wakabayashi K, Lian ZX, Leung PS, Moritoki Y, Tsuneyama K, Kurth MJ, Lam KS, Yoshida K, Yang GX, Hibi T, Ansari AA, Ridgway WM, Coppel RL, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. Loss of tolerance in C57BL/6 mice to the autoantigen E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase by a xenobiotic with ensuing biliary ductular disease. Hepatology. 2008 Aug; 48(2):531-40. PMID: 18563844.
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    122. Leung PS, Lee YS, Tang CY, Kung WY, Chuang YH, Chiang BL, Fung MC, Chu KH. Induction of shrimp tropomyosin-specific hypersensitivity in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008; 147(4):305-14. PMID: 18617750.
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    123. Mattner J, Savage PB, Leung P, Oertelt SS, Wang V, Trivedi O, Scanlon ST, Pendem K, Teyton L, Hart J, Ridgway WM, Wicker LS, Gershwin ME, Bendelac A. Liver autoimmunity triggered by microbial activation of natural killer T cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2008 May 15; 3(5):304-15. PMID: 18474357.
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    124. Leung PS, Rossaro L, Davis PA, Park O, Tanaka A, Kikuchi K, Miyakawa H, Norman GL, Lee W, Gershwin ME. Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: implications for primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2007 Nov; 46(5):1436-42. PMID: 17657817.
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    125. Leung PS, Park O, Tsuneyama K, Kurth MJ, Lam KS, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Induction of primary biliary cirrhosis in guinea pigs following chemical xenobiotic immunization. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 15; 179(4):2651-7. PMID: 17675529.
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    126. Oertelt S, Rieger R, Selmi C, Invernizzi P, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Podda M, Leung PS, Gershwin ME. A sensitive bead assay for antimitochondrial antibodies: Chipping away at AMA-negative primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2007 Mar; 45(3):659-65. PMID: 17326160.
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    127. Rieger R, Leung PS, Jeddeloh MR, Kurth MJ, Nantz MH, Lam KS, Barsky D, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. Identification of 2-nonynoic acid, a cosmetic component, as a potential trigger of primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 2006 Aug; 27(1):7-16. PMID: 16876981.
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    128. Irie J, Wu Y, Wicker LS, Rainbow D, Nalesnik MA, Hirsch R, Peterson LB, Leung PS, Cheng C, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME, Ridgway WM. NOD.c3c4 congenic mice develop autoimmune biliary disease that serologically and pathogenetically models human primary biliary cirrhosis. J Exp Med. 2006 May 15; 203(5):1209-19. PMID: 16636131.
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    129. Leung PS, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis: the search for the culprit. Semin Liver Dis. 2005 Aug; 25(3):327-36. PMID: 16143948.
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    130. Park O, Grishina I, Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Prindiville T. Analysis of the Foxp3/scurfin gene in Crohn's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun; 1051:218-28. PMID: 16126962.
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    131. Amano K, Leung PS, Rieger R, Quan C, Wang X, Marik J, Suen YF, Kurth MJ, Nantz MH, Ansari AA, Lam KS, Zeniya M, Matsuura E, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Chemical xenobiotics and mitochondrial autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis: identification of antibodies against a common environmental, cosmetic, and food additive, 2-octynoic acid. J Immunol. 2005 May 01; 174(9):5874-83. PMID: 15845458.
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    132. Padgett KA, Selmi C, Kenny TP, Leung PS, Balkwill DL, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Phylogenetic and immunological definition of four lipoylated proteins from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, implications for primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 2005 May; 24(3):209-19. PMID: 15848043.
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    133. Kimura Y, Selmi C, Leung PS, Mao TK, Schauer J, Watnik M, Kuriyama S, Nishioka M, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Invernizzi P, Podda M, Gershwin ME. Genetic polymorphisms influencing xenobiotic metabolism and transport in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2005 Jan; 41(1):55-63. PMID: 15690482.
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    134. Chu KH, Tang CY, Wu A, Leung PS. Seafood allergy: lessons from clinical symptoms, immunological mechanisms and molecular biology. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2005; 97:205-35. PMID: 16261809.
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    135. Ichiki Y, Leung PS, Ishibashi H, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Mitochondria and autoimmunity in primary biliary cirrhosis. Mitochondrion. 2004 Sep; 4(5-6):743-53. PMID: 16120429.
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    136. Amano K, Leung PS, Xu Q, Marik J, Quan C, Kurth MJ, Nantz MH, Ansari AA, Lam KS, Zeniya M, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Xenobiotic-induced loss of tolerance in rabbits to the mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis is reversible. J Immunol. 2004 May 15; 172(10):6444-52. PMID: 15128836.
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    137. Matsumura S, Van De Water J, Leung P, Odin JA, Yamamoto K, Gores GJ, Mostov K, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Shiratori Y, Gershwin ME. Caspase induction by IgA antimitochondrial antibody: IgA-mediated biliary injury in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2004 May; 39(5):1415-22. PMID: 15122771.
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    138. Bruggraber SF, Leung PS, Amano K, Quan C, Kurth MJ, Nantz MH, Benson GD, Van de Water J, Luketic V, Roche TE, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Autoreactivity to lipoate and a conjugated form of lipoate in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec; 125(6):1705-13. PMID: 14724823.
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    139. Selmi C, Balkwill DL, Invernizzi P, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Podda M, Leung PS, Kenny TP, Van De Water J, Nantz MH, Kurth MJ, Gershwin ME. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis react against a ubiquitous xenobiotic-metabolizing bacterium. Hepatology. 2003 Nov; 38(5):1250-7. PMID: 14578864.
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    140. Leung PS, Park O, Matsumura S, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Is there a relation between Chlamydia infection and primary biliary cirrhosis? Clin Dev Immunol. 2003 Jun-Dec; 10(2-4):227-33. PMID: 14768955.
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    141. Leung PS, Quan C, Park O, Van de Water J, Kurth MJ, Nantz MH, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Lam KS, Gershwin ME. Immunization with a xenobiotic 6-bromohexanoate bovine serum albumin conjugate induces antimitochondrial antibodies. J Immunol. 2003 May 15; 170(10):5326-32. PMID: 12734383.
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    142. Fukushima N, Nalbandian G, Van De Water J, White K, Ansari AA, Leung P, Kenny T, Kamita SG, Hammock BD, Coppel RL, Stevenson F, Ishibashi H, Gershwin ME. Characterization of recombinant monoclonal IgA anti-PDC-E2 autoantibodies derived from patients with PBC. Hepatology. 2002 Dec; 36(6):1383-92. PMID: 12447863.
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    143. Kimura Y, Leung PS, Kenny TP, Van De Water J, Nishioka M, Giraud AS, Neuberger J, Benson G, Kaul R, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Differential expression of intestinal trefoil factor in biliary epithelial cells of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2002 Nov; 36(5):1227-35. PMID: 12395334.
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    144. Sasaki M, Van De Water J, Kenny TP, Gallo ML, Leung PS, Nakanuma Y, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Neuberger J, Gershwin ME. Immunoglobulin gene usage and immunohistochemical characteristics of human monoclonal antibodies to the mitochondrial autoantigens of primary biliary cirrhosis induced in the XenoMouse. Hepatology. 2001 Oct; 34(4 Pt 1):631-7. PMID: 11584357.
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    145. Leung JW, Liu YL, Leung PS, Chan RC, Inciardi JF, Cheng AF. Expression of bacterial beta-glucuronidase in human bile: an in vitro study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001 Sep; 54(3):346-50. PMID: 11522976.
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    146. Leung PS, Chu KH. cDNA cloning and molecular identification of the major oyster allergen from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001 Aug; 31(8):1287-94. PMID: 11529900.
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    147. Tanaka A, Leung PS, Kenny TP, Au-Young J, Prindiville T, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Genomic analysis of differentially expressed genes in liver and biliary epithelial cells of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 2001 Aug; 17(1):89-98. PMID: 11488641.
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    148. Chia SC, Leung PS, Liao CP, Huang JH, Lee ST. Fragment of Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein produced in Escherichia coli protects mice from virus challenge. Microb Pathog. 2001 Jul; 31(1):9-19. PMID: 11427032.
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    149. Gershwin ME, Leung PS, Li H, Seldin MF. Primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmunity: evaluating the genetic risk. Isr Med Assoc J. 2000 Dec; 2 Suppl:7-10. PMID: 11344867.
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    150. Tanaka A, Nalbandian G, Leung PS, Benson GD, Munoz S, Findor JA, Branch AD, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Mucosal immunity and primary biliary cirrhosis: presence of antimitochondrial antibodies in urine. Hepatology. 2000 Nov; 32(5):910-5. PMID: 11050038.
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    151. Chu KH, Wong SH, Leung PS. Tropomyosin Is the Major Mollusk Allergen: Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expression and IgE Reactivity. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2000 Sep; 2(5):499-509. PMID: 11246417.
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    152. Sasaki M, Ansari A, Pumford N, van de Water J, Leung PS, Humphries KM, Szweda LI, Nakanuma Y, Roche TE, Coppel RL, Bach JF, Gershwin ME. Comparative immunoreactivity of anti-trifluoroacetyl (TFA) antibody and anti-lipoic acid antibody in primary biliary cirrhosis: searching for a mimic. J Autoimmun. 2000 Aug; 15(1):51-60. PMID: 10936028.
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    153. Reynoso-Paz S, Leung PS, Van De Water J, Tanaka A, Munoz S, Bass N, Lindor K, Donald PJ, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Evidence for a locally driven mucosal response and the presence of mitochondrial antigens in saliva in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2000 Jan; 31(1):24-9. PMID: 10613723.
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    154. Leung PS, Chen YC, Chu KH. Seafood allergy: tropomyosins and beyond. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 1999 Sep; 32(3):143-54. PMID: 10637712.
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    155. Dubel L, Tanaka A, Leung PS, Van de Water J, Coppel R, Roche T, Johanet C, Motokawa Y, Ansari A, Gershwin ME. Autoepitope mapping and reactivity of autoantibodies to the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein (E3BP) and the glycine cleavage proteins in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1999 Apr; 29(4):1013-8. PMID: 10094940.
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    156. Migliaccio C, Nishio A, Van de Water J, Ansari AA, Leung PS, Nakanuma Y, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Monoclonal antibodies to mitochondrial E2 components define autoepitopes in primary biliary cirrhosis. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 15; 161(10):5157-63. PMID: 9820485.
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    157. Masanaga T, Watanabe Y, Van de Water J, Leung PS, Nakanishi T, Kajiyama G, Ruebner BH, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Induction and persistence of immune-mediated cholangiohepatitis in neonatally thymectomized mice. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1998 Nov; 89(2):141-9. PMID: 9787116.
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    158. Leung PS, Chen YC, Gershwin ME, Wong SH, Kwan HS, Chu KH. Identification and molecular characterization of Charybdis feriatus tropomyosin, the major crab allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998 Nov; 102(5):847-52. PMID: 9819304.
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    159. Malmborg AC, Shultz DB, Luton F, Mostov KE, Richly E, Leung PS, Benson GD, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME, Van de Water J. Penetration and co-localization in MDCK cell mitochondria of IgA derived from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 1998 Oct; 11(5):573-80. PMID: 9802945.
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    160. Leung PS, Chu KH. Molecular and immunological characterization of shellfish allergens. Front Biosci. 1998 Mar 15; 3:d306-12. PMID: 9482714.
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    161. Leung PS, Chen YC, Mykles DL, Chow WK, Li CP, Chu KH. Molecular identification of the lobster muscle protein tropomyosin as a seafood allergen. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol. 1998 Mar; 7(1):12-20. PMID: 9597774.
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    162. Nakanuma Y, Harada K, Kaji K, Terasaki S, Tsuneyama K, Moteki S, Van de Water J, Leung PS, Gershwin ME. Clinicopathological study of primary biliary cirrhosis negative for antimitochondrial antibodies. Liver. 1997 Dec; 17(6):281-7. PMID: 9455733.
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    163. Mattalia A, Lüttig B, Rosina F, Leung PS, Van de Water J, Bauducci M, Ciancio A, Böker KH, Worman H, Cooper RL, Manns M, Ansari A, Rizzetto M, Gershwin ME. Persistence of autoantibodies against recombinant mitochondrial and nuclear pore proteins after orthotopic liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 1997 Oct; 10(5):491-7. PMID: 9376077.
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    164. Nishio A, Van de Water J, Leung PS, Joplin R, Neuberger JM, Lake J, Björkland A, Tötterman TH, Peters M, Worman HJ, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Comparative studies of antimitochondrial autoantibodies in sera and bile in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1997 May; 25(5):1085-9. PMID: 9141421.
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    165. Harada K, Van de Water J, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Ansari A, Nakanuma Y, Gershwin ME. In situ nucleic acid hybridization of cytokines in primary biliary cirrhosis: predominance of the Th1 subset. Hepatology. 1997 Apr; 25(4):791-6. PMID: 9096578.
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    166. Leung PS, Coppel RL, Ansari A, Munoz S, Gershwin ME. Antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis. 1997 Feb; 17(1):61-9. PMID: 9089911.
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    167. Van Norstrand MD, Malinchoc M, Lindor KD, Therneau TM, Gershwin ME, Leung PS, Dickson ER, Homburger HA. Quantitative measurement of autoantibodies to recombinant mitochondrial antigens in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis: relationship of levels of autoantibodies to disease progression. Hepatology. 1997 Jan; 25(1):6-11. PMID: 8985257.
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    168. Harada K, Van de Water J, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Nakanuma Y, Gershwin ME. In situ nucleic acid hybridization of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 messenger RNA is expressed in hepatocytes but not in biliary epithelium. Hepatology. 1997 Jan; 25(1):27-32. PMID: 8985260.
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    169. Leung PS, Cha S, Joplin RE, Galperin C, Van de Water J, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Schatz PJ, Cwirla S, Fabris LE, Neuberger JM, Gershwin ME. Inhibition of PDC-E2 human combinatorial autoantibodies by peptide mimotopes. J Autoimmun. 1996 Dec; 9(6):785-93. PMID: 9115581.
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    170. Leung PS, Chow WK, Duffey S, Kwan HS, Gershwin ME, Chu KH. IgE reactivity against a cross-reactive allergen in crustacea and mollusca: evidence for tropomyosin as the common allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996 Nov; 98(5 Pt 1):954-61. PMID: 8939159.
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    171. Cha S, Leung PS, Van de Water J, Tsuneyama K, Joplin RE, Ansari AA, Nakanuma Y, Schatz PJ, Cwirla S, Fabris LE, Neuberger JM, Gershwin ME, Coppel RL. Random phage mimotopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 01; 93(20):10949-54. PMID: 8855289.
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    172. Moteki S, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Dickson ER, Kaplan MM, Munoz S, Gershwin ME. Use of a designer triple expression hybrid clone for three different lipoyl domain for the detection of antimitochondrial autoantibodies. Hepatology. 1996 Jul; 24(1):97-103. PMID: 8707289.
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    173. Leung PS, Van de Water J, Coppel RL, Nakanuma Y, Munoz S, Gershwin ME. Molecular aspects and the pathological basis of primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 1996 Apr; 9(2):119-28. PMID: 8738955.
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    174. Moteki S, Leung PS, Dickson ER, Van Thiel DH, Galperin C, Buch T, Alarcon-Segovia D, Kershenobich D, Kawano K, Coppel RL. Epitope mapping and reactivity of autoantibodies to the E2 component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis using recombinant 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Hepatology. 1996 Mar; 23(3):436-44. PMID: 8617422.
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    175. Galperin C, Leung PS, Gershwin ME. Molecular biology of autoantigens in rheumatic diseases. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1996 Feb; 22(1):175-210. PMID: 8907071.
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    176. Leung PS, Chuang DT, Wynn RM, Cha S, Danner DJ, Ansari A, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Autoantibodies to BCOADC-E2 in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis recognize a conformational epitope. Hepatology. 1995 Aug; 22(2):505-13. PMID: 7543435.
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    177. Tsuneyama K, Van de Water J, Leung PS, Cha S, Nakanuma Y, Kaplan M, De Lellis R, Coppel R, Ansari A, Gershwin ME. Abnormal expression of the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex on the luminal surface of biliary epithelium occurs before major histocompatibility complex class II and BB1/B7 expression. Hepatology. 1995 Apr; 21(4):1031-7. PMID: 7535733.
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    178. Ansari AA, Neckelmann N, Villinger F, Leung P, Danner DJ, Brar SS, Zhao S, Gravanis MB, Mayne A, Gershwin ME. Epitope mapping of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase dihydrolipoyl transacylase (BCKD-E2) protein that reacts with sera from patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Immunol. 1994 Nov 15; 153(10):4754-65. PMID: 7963542.
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    179. Leung PS, Chu KH, Chow WK, Ansari A, Bandea CI, Kwan HS, Nagy SM, Gershwin ME. Cloning, expression, and primary structure of Metapenaeus ensis tropomyosin, the major heat-stable shrimp allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994 Nov; 94(5):882-90. PMID: 7963157.
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    180. Cha S, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Van de Water J, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME. Heterogeneity of combinatorial human autoantibodies against PDC-E2 and biliary epithelial cells in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1994 Sep; 20(3):574-83. PMID: 7521314.
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    181. Pascual V, Cha S, Gershwin ME, Capra JD, Leung PS. Nucleotide sequence analysis of natural and combinatorial anti-PDC-E2 antibodies in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Recapitulating immune selection with molecular biology. J Immunol. 1994 Mar 01; 152(5):2577-85. PMID: 8133065.
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    182. Leung PS, Halpern GM, Gershwin ME. Evaluation of possible histamine release from human peripheral blood cells using an enzyme immunoassay (HRT) with components of intravenous catheters. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1993 Oct; 25(8):346-53. PMID: 7505586.
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    183. Turchany JM, Leung PS, Iwayama T, Jefferson DM, Ishida J, Yamaguchi M, Munoz S, Danner DJ, Dickson ER, Gershwin ME. Comparative metabolism and structure of BCKD-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 1993 Aug; 6(4):459-66. PMID: 8216688.
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    184. Van de Water J, Turchany J, Leung PS, Lake J, Munoz S, Surh CD, Coppel R, Ansari A, Nakanuma Y, Gershwin ME. Molecular mimicry in primary biliary cirrhosis. Evidence for biliary epithelial expression of a molecule cross-reactive with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2. J Clin Invest. 1993 Jun; 91(6):2653-64. PMID: 8514873.
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    185. Cha S, Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Fletcher MP, Ansari AA, Coppel RL. Combinatorial autoantibodies to dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, the major autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 15; 90(6):2527-31. PMID: 8460168.
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    186. Leung PS, Gershwin ME. Immunoglobulin genes in autoimmunity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1993; 101(2):113-8. PMID: 8508048.
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    187. Leung PS, Watanabe Y, Munoz S, Teuber SS, Patel MS, Korenberg JR, Hara P, Coppel R, Gershwin ME. Chromosome localization and RFLP analysis of PDC-E2: the major autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. Autoimmunity. 1993; 14(4):335-40. PMID: 8102256.
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    188. Leung PS, Krams S, Munoz S, Surh CP, Ansari A, Kenny T, Robbins DL, Fung J, Starzl TE, Maddrey W. Characterization and epitope mapping of human monoclonal antibodies to PDC-E2, the immunodominant autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 1992 Dec; 5(6):703-18. PMID: 1283300.
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    189. Davis PA, Leung P, Manns M, Kaplan M, Munoz SJ, Gorin FA, Dickson ER, Krawitt E, Coppel R, Gershwin ME. M4 and M9 antibodies in the overlap syndrome of primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis: epitopes or epiphenomena? Hepatology. 1992 Nov; 16(5):1128-36. PMID: 1330864.
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    190. Caldwell SH, Leung PS, Spivey JR, Prindiville T, de Medina M, Saicheur T, Rowley M, Reddy KR, Coppel R, Jeffers LJ. Antimitochondrial antibodies in kindreds of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis: antimitochondrial antibodies are unique to clinical disease and are absent in asymptomatic family members. Hepatology. 1992 Oct; 16(4):899-905. PMID: 1398496.
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    191. Leung PS, Iwayama T, Prindiville T, Chuang DT, Ansari AA, Wynn RM, Dickson R, Coppel R, Gershwin ME. Use of designer recombinant mitochondrial antigens in the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1992 Mar; 15(3):367-72. PMID: 1371979.
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    192. Gershwin ME, Rowley M, Davis PA, Leung P, Coppel R, Mackay IR. Molecular biology of the 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes and anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Prog Liver Dis. 1992; 10:47-61. PMID: 1296237.
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    193. Iwayama T, Leung PS, Rowley M, Munoz S, Nishioka M, Nakagawa T, Dickson ER, Coppel RL, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. Comparative immunoreactive profiles of Japanese and American patients with primary biliary cirrhosis against mitochondrial autoantigens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1992; 99(1):28-33. PMID: 1483064.
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    194. Teuber SS, Coppel RL, Ansari AA, Leung PS, Neve R, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. The identification and cloning of the murine genes encoding the liver specific F alloantigens. J Autoimmun. 1991 Dec; 4(6):857-70. PMID: 1667467.
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    195. Iwayama T, Leung PS, Coppel RL, Roche TE, Patel MS, Mizushima Y, Nakagawa T, Dickson R, Gershwin ME. Specific reactivity of recombinant human PDC-E1 alpha in primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun. 1991 Oct; 4(5):769-78. PMID: 1797026.
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    196. Leung PS, Gershwin ME. The immunobiology of heat shock proteins. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1991 Feb; 1(1):23-30. PMID: 1669561.
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    197. Leung PS, Van de Water J, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Molecular characterization of the mitochondrial autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis. Immunol Res. 1991; 10(3-4):518-27. PMID: 1720161.
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    198. Leung PS, Iwayama T, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME. Site-directed mutagenesis of lysine within the immunodominant autoepitope of PDC-E2. Hepatology. 1990 Dec; 12(6):1321-8. PMID: 1701753.
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    199. Fujikura S, Davis PA, Prindiville T, Leung P, Fox RI, Gershwin ME. Sjögren's syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis: presence of autoantibodies to purified mitochondrial 2-OXO acid dehydrogenases. J Rheumatol. 1990 Nov; 17(11):1453-7. PMID: 1703233.
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    200. Van de Water J, Surh CD, Leung PS, Krams SM, Fregeau D, Davis P, Coppel R, Mackay IR, Gershwin ME. Molecular definitions, autoepitopes, and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial autoantigens of primary biliary cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis. 1989 May; 9(2):132-7. PMID: 2471277.
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    201. Leung PS, Gershwin ME. The molecular structure of autoantigens. Curr Opin Immunol. 1989-1990 Apr; 2(4):567-75. PMID: 2700899.
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    202. Van de Water J, Fregeau D, Davis P, Ansari A, Danner D, Leung P, Coppel R, Gershwin ME. Autoantibodies of primary biliary cirrhosis recognize dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase and inhibit enzyme function. J Immunol. 1988 Oct 01; 141(7):2321-4. PMID: 3049806.
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    203. Van de Water J, Gershwin ME, Leung P, Ansari A, Coppel RL. The autoepitope of the 74-kD mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis corresponds to the functional site of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. J Exp Med. 1988 Jun 01; 167(6):1791-9. PMID: 2455013.
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    204. Fregeau DR, Leung PS, Coppel RL, McNeilage LJ, Medsger TA, Gershwin ME. Autoantibodies to mitochondria in systemic sclerosis. Frequency and characterization using recombinant cloned autoantigen. Arthritis Rheum. 1988 Mar; 31(3):386-92. PMID: 3282519.
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    205. Surh CD, Cooper AE, Coppel RL, Leung P, Ahmed A, Dickson R, Gershwin ME. The predominance of IgG3 and IgM isotype antimitochondrial autoantibodies against recombinant fused mitochondrial polypeptide in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1988 Mar-Apr; 8(2):290-5. PMID: 3356410.
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    206. Leung PS, Gershwin ME, Coppel R, Halpern G, Novey H, Castles JJ. Localization, molecular weight and immunoglobulin subclass response to Aspergillus fumigatus allergens in acute bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1988; 85(4):416-21. PMID: 2451644.
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