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Paul Ashwood

Title(s)Professor, Medical Microbiology and Immunology
SchoolUniversity of California, Davis
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Ames JL, Windham GC, Lyall K, Pearl M, Kharrazi M, Yoshida CK, Van de Water J, Ashwood P, Croen LA. Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Subsequent Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability. Autism Res. 2019 Dec 10. PMID: 31823519.
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    2. Croen LA, Qian Y, Ashwood P, Zerbo O, Schendel D, Pinto-Martin J, Daniele Fallin M, Levy S, Schieve LA, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Sabourin KR, Ames JL. Infection and Fever in Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development. Autism Res. 2019 Oct; 12(10):1551-1561. PMID: 31317667.
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    3. Rose D, Ashwood P. Rapid Communication: Plasma Interleukin-35 in Children with Autism. Brain Sci. 2019 Jun 27; 9(7). PMID: 31252635.
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    4. Heuer LS, Croen LA, Jones KL, Yoshida CK, Hansen RL, Yolken R, Zerbo O, DeLorenze G, Kharrazi M, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. An Exploratory Examination of Neonatal Cytokines and Chemokines as Predictors of Autism Risk: The Early Markers for Autism Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 15; 86(4):255-264. PMID: 31279535.
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    5. Sanctuary MR, Kain JN, Chen SY, Kalanetra K, Lemay DG, Rose DR, Yang HT, Tancredi DJ, German JB, Slupsky CM, Ashwood P, Mills DA, Smilowitz JT, Angkustsiri K. Pilot study of probiotic/colostrum supplementation on gut function in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. PLoS One. 2019; 14(1):e0210064. PMID: 30625189.
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    6. Hughes HK, Ashwood P. Anti-Candida albicans IgG Antibodies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Psychiatry. 2018; 9:627. PMID: 30534090.
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    7. Ashwood P. Differential T Cell Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-II in Children With Autism. Front Psychiatry. 2018; 9:543. PMID: 30524316.
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    8. Hughes HK, Mills Ko E, Rose D, Ashwood P. Immune Dysfunction and Autoimmunity as Pathological Mechanisms in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Cell Neurosci. 2018; 12:405. PMID: 30483058.
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    9. Hughes HK, Rose D, Ashwood P. The Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2018 09 24; 18(11):81. PMID: 30251184.
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    10. Traglia M, Croen LA, Jones KL, Heuer LS, Yolken R, Kharrazi M, DeLorenze GN, Ashwood P, Van de Water J, Weiss LA. Cross-genetic determination of maternal and neonatal immune mediators during pregnancy. Genome Med. 2018 08 22; 10(1):67. PMID: 30134952.
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    11. Croen LA, Qian Y, Ashwood P, Daniels JL, Fallin D, Schendel D, Schieve LA, Singer AB, Zerbo O. Family history of immune conditions and autism spectrum and developmental disorders: Findings from the study to explore early development. Autism Res. 2019 01; 12(1):123-135. PMID: 30095240.
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    12. Lesh TA, Careaga M, Rose DR, McAllister AK, Van de Water J, Carter CS, Ashwood P. Cytokine alterations in first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: relationships to brain structure and symptoms. J Neuroinflammation. 2018 May 26; 15(1):165. PMID: 29803226.
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    13. Castañeda AR, Pinkerton KE, Bein KJ, Magaña-Méndez A, Yang HT, Ashwood P, Vogel CFA. Ambient particulate matter activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in dendritic cells and enhances Th17 polarization. Toxicol Lett. 2018 Aug; 292:85-96. PMID: 29689377.
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    14. Rose DR, Yang H, Serena G, Sturgeon C, Ma B, Careaga M, Hughes HK, Angkustsiri K, Rose M, Hertz-Picciotto I, Van de Water J, Hansen RL, Ravel J, Fasano A, Ashwood P. Differential immune responses and microbiota profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid gastrointestinal symptoms. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 05; 70:354-368. PMID: 29571898.
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    15. Edmiston E, Jones KL, Vu T, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Identification of the antigenic epitopes of maternal autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 03; 69:399-407. PMID: 29289663.
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    16. Vogel Ciernia A, Careaga M, LaSalle JM, Ashwood P. Microglia from offspring of dams with allergic asthma exhibit epigenomic alterations in genes dysregulated in autism. Glia. 2018 03; 66(3):505-521. PMID: 29134693.
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    17. Onore C, Yang H, Van de Water J, Ashwood P. Dynamic Akt/mTOR Signaling in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Pediatr. 2017; 5:43. PMID: 28361047.
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    18. Rose DR, Careaga M, Van de Water J, McAllister K, Bauman MD, Ashwood P. Long-term altered immune responses following fetal priming in a non-human primate model of maternal immune activation. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Jul; 63:60-70. PMID: 27876552.
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    19. Schwartzer JJ, Careaga M, Coburn MA, Rose DR, Hughes HK, Ashwood P. Behavioral impact of maternal allergic-asthma in two genetically distinct mouse strains. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Jul; 63:99-107. PMID: 27622677.
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    20. Edmiston E, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Autoimmunity, Autoantibodies, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 03 01; 81(5):383-390. PMID: 28340985.
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    21. Schwartzer JJ, Onore CE, Rose D, Ashwood P. C57BL/6J bone marrow transplant increases sociability in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Jan; 59:55-61. PMID: 27235929.
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    22. Jones KL, Croen LA, Yoshida CK, Heuer L, Hansen R, Zerbo O, DeLorenze GN, Kharrazi M, Yolken R, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Autism with intellectual disability is associated with increased levels of maternal cytokines and chemokines during gestation. Mol Psychiatry. 2017 02; 22(2):273-279. PMID: 27217154.
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    23. Grether JK, Ashwood P, Van de Water J, Yolken RH, Anderson MC, Torres AR, Westover JB, Sweeten T, Hansen RL, Kharrazi M, Croen LA. Prenatal and Newborn Immunoglobulin Levels from Mother-Child Pairs and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Neurosci. 2016; 10:218. PMID: 27242422.
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    24. Zerbo O, Traglia M, Yoshida C, Heuer LS, Ashwood P, Delorenze GN, Hansen RL, Kharrazi M, Van de Water J, Yolken RH, Weiss LA, Croen LA. Maternal mid-pregnancy C-reactive protein and risk of autism spectrum disorders: the early markers for autism study. Transl Psychiatry. 2016 Apr 19; 6:e783. PMID: 27093065.
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    25. Careaga M, Rogers S, Hansen RL, Amaral DG, Van de Water J, Ashwood P. Immune Endophenotypes in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 03 01; 81(5):434-441. PMID: 26493496.
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    26. Krakowiak P, Goines PE, Tancredi DJ, Ashwood P, Hansen RL, Hertz-Picciotto I, Van de Water J. Neonatal Cytokine Profiles Associated With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 03 01; 81(5):442-451. PMID: 26392128.
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    27. Akintunde ME, Rose M, Krakowiak P, Heuer L, Ashwood P, Hansen R, Hertz-Picciotto I, Van de Water J. Increased production of IL-17 in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid asthma. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Sep 15; 286:33-41. PMID: 26298322.
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    28. Walker CK, Ashwood P, Hertz-Picciotto I. Preeclampsia, placental insufficiency, autism, and antiphospholipid antibodies-reply. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Jun; 169(6):606-7. PMID: 26030513.
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    29. Schwartzer JJ, Careaga M, Chang C, Onore CE, Ashwood P. Allergic fetal priming leads to developmental, behavioral and neurobiological changes in mice. Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Apr 07; 5:e543. PMID: 25849982.
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    30. Lyall K, Van de Water J, Ashwood P, Hertz-Picciotto I. Asthma and Allergies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Results From the CHARGE Study. Autism Res. 2015 Oct; 8(5):567-74. PMID: 25722050.
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    31. Gesundheit B, Ashwood P, Keating A, Naor D, Melamed M, Rosenzweig JP. Therapeutic properties of mesenchymal stem cells for autism spectrum disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2015 Mar; 84(3):169-77. PMID: 25592283.
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    32. Choi JE, Widjaja F, Careaga M, Bent S, Ashwood P, Hendren RL. Change in plasma cytokine levels during risperidone treatment in children with autism. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2014 Dec; 24(10):586-9. PMID: 24828014.
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    33. Mead J, Ashwood P. Evidence supporting an altered immune response in ASD. Immunol Lett. 2015 Jan; 163(1):49-55. PMID: 25448709.
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    34. Lyall K, Ashwood P, Van de Water J, Hertz-Picciotto I. Maternal immune-mediated conditions, autism spectrum disorders, and developmental delay. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Jul; 44(7):1546-55. PMID: 24337796.
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    35. Zerbo O, Yoshida C, Grether JK, Van de Water J, Ashwood P, Delorenze GN, Hansen RL, Kharrazi M, Croen LA. Neonatal cytokines and chemokines and risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) study: a case-control study. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Jun 20; 11:113. PMID: 24951035.
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    36. Careaga M, Noyon T, Basuta K, Van de Water J, Tassone F, Hagerman RJ, Ashwood P. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor mediated dynamic immune dysfunction in children with fragile X syndrome. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Jun 19; 11:110. PMID: 24942544.
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    37. Careaga M, Schwartzer J, Ashwood P. Inflammatory profiles in the BTBR mouse: how relevant are they to autism spectrum disorders? Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Jan; 43:11-6. PMID: 24937468.
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    38. Careaga M, Rose D, Tassone F, Berman RF, Hagerman R, Ashwood P. Immune dysregulation as a cause of autoinflammation in fragile X premutation carriers: link between FMRI CGG repeat number and decreased cytokine responses. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94475. PMID: 24718368.
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    39. Valacchi G, Ashwood P. ASD: biochemical mechanisms behind behavioral disorders. Mediators Inflamm. 2014; 2014:758473. PMID: 24799768.
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    40. Onore CE, Schwartzer JJ, Careaga M, Berman RF, Ashwood P. Maternal immune activation leads to activated inflammatory macrophages in offspring. Brain Behav Immun. 2014 May; 38:220-6. PMID: 24566386.
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    41. Rose D, Ashwood P. Potential cytokine biomarkers in autism spectrum disorders. Biomark Med. 2014; 8(9):1171-81. PMID: 25402586.
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    42. Weis SN, Toniazzo AP, Ander BP, Zhan X, Careaga M, Ashwood P, Wyse AT, Netto CA, Sharp FR. Autophagy in the brain of neonates following hypoxia-ischemia shows sex- and region-specific effects. Neuroscience. 2014 Jan 03; 256:201-9. PMID: 24184979.
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    43. Careaga M, Hansen RL, Hertz-Piccotto I, Van de Water J, Ashwood P. Increased anti-phospholipid antibodies in autism spectrum disorders. Mediators Inflamm. 2013; 2013:935608. PMID: 24174712.
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    44. Giulivi C, Napoli E, Schwartzer J, Careaga M, Ashwood P. Gestational exposure to a viral mimetic poly(i:C) results in long-lasting changes in mitochondrial function by leucocytes in the adult offspring. Mediators Inflamm. 2013; 2013:609602. PMID: 24174710.
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    45. Onore CE, Careaga M, Babineau BA, Schwartzer JJ, Berman RF, Ashwood P. Inflammatory macrophage phenotype in BTBR T+tf/J mice. Front Neurosci. 2013; 7:158. PMID: 24062633.
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    46. Lv YT, Zhang Y, Liu M, Qiuwaxi JN, Ashwood P, Cho SC, Huan Y, Ge RC, Chen XW, Wang ZJ, Kim BJ, Hu X. Transplantation of human cord blood mononuclear cells and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in autism. J Transl Med. 2013 Aug 27; 11:196. PMID: 23978163.
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    47. Gesundheit B, Rosenzweig JP, Naor D, Lerer B, Zachor DA, Procházka V, Melamed M, Kristt DA, Steinberg A, Shulman C, Hwang P, Koren G, Walfisch A, Passweg JR, Snowden JA, Tamouza R, Leboyer M, Farge-Bancel D, Ashwood P. Immunological and autoimmune considerations of Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autoimmun. 2013 Aug; 44:1-7. PMID: 23867105.
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    48. Braunschweig D, Krakowiak P, Duncanson P, Boyce R, Hansen RL, Ashwood P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Autism-specific maternal autoantibodies recognize critical proteins in developing brain. Transl Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 09; 3:e277. PMID: 23838888.
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    49. Bauman MD, Iosif AM, Ashwood P, Braunschweig D, Lee A, Schumann CM, Van de Water J, Amaral DG. Maternal antibodies from mothers of children with autism alter brain growth and social behavior development in the rhesus monkey. Transl Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 09; 3:e278. PMID: 23838889.
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    50. Schroeder DI, Blair JD, Lott P, Yu HO, Hong D, Crary F, Ashwood P, Walker C, Korf I, Robinson WP, LaSalle JM. The human placenta methylome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 09; 110(15):6037-42. PMID: 23530188.
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    51. Schwartzer JJ, Careaga M, Onore CE, Rushakoff JA, Berman RF, Ashwood P. Maternal immune activation and strain specific interactions in the development of autism-like behaviors in mice. Transl Psychiatry. 2013 Mar 12; 3:e240. PMID: 23481627.
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    52. Nordahl CW, Braunschweig D, Iosif AM, Lee A, Rogers S, Ashwood P, Amaral DG, Van de Water J. Maternal autoantibodies are associated with abnormal brain enlargement in a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorder. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 May; 30:61-5. PMID: 23395715.
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    53. Coury DL, Ashwood P, Fasano A, Fuchs G, Geraghty M, Kaul A, Mawe G, Patterson P, Jones NE. Gastrointestinal conditions in children with autism spectrum disorder: developing a research agenda. Pediatrics. 2012 Nov; 130 Suppl 2:S160-8. PMID: 23118247.
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    54. Breece E, Paciotti B, Nordahl CW, Ozonoff S, Van de Water JA, Rogers SJ, Amaral D, Ashwood P. Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Jul; 31:69-75. PMID: 23063420.
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    55. Fatemi SH, Aldinger KA, Ashwood P, Bauman ML, Blaha CD, Blatt GJ, Chauhan A, Chauhan V, Dager SR, Dickson PE, Estes AM, Goldowitz D, Heck DH, Kemper TL, King BH, Martin LA, Millen KJ, Mittleman G, Mosconi MW, Persico AM, Sweeney JA, Webb SJ, Welsh JP. Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism. Cerebellum. 2012 Sep; 11(3):777-807. PMID: 22370873.
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    56. Winarni TI, Chonchaiya W, Sumekar TA, Ashwood P, Morales GM, Tassone F, Nguyen DV, Faradz SM, Van de Water J, Cook K, Hamlin A, Mu Y, Hagerman PJ, Hagerman RJ. Immune-mediated disorders among women carriers of fragile X premutation alleles. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Oct; 158A(10):2473-81. PMID: 22903889.
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    57. Goines PE, Ashwood P. Cytokine dysregulation in autism spectrum disorders (ASD): possible role of the environment. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Mar-Apr; 36:67-81. PMID: 22918031.
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    58. Heuer LS, Rose M, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Decreased levels of total immunoglobulin in children with autism are not a result of B cell dysfunction. J Neuroimmunol. 2012 Oct 15; 251(1-2):94-102. PMID: 22854260.
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    59. Braunschweig D, Duncanson P, Boyce R, Hansen R, Ashwood P, Pessah IN, Hertz-Picciotto I, Van de Water J. Behavioral correlates of maternal antibody status among children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012 Jul; 42(7):1435-45. PMID: 22012245.
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    60. Onore CE, Nordahl CW, Young GS, Van de Water JA, Rogers SJ, Ashwood P. Levels of soluble platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin are decreased in children with autism spectrum disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Dec 15; 72(12):1020-5. PMID: 22717029.
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    61. Bent S, Bertoglio K, Ashwood P, Nemeth E, Hendren RL. Brief report: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in children with autism spectrum disorder: a clinical trial. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012 Jun; 42(6):1127-32. PMID: 21818676.
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    62. Onore C, Van de Water J, Ashwood P. Decreased levels of EGF in plasma of children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res Treat. 2012; 2012:205362. PMID: 22937258.
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    63. Careaga M, Ashwood P. Autism spectrum disorders: from immunity to behavior. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 934:219-40. PMID: 22933149.
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    64. Critchfield JW, van Hemert S, Ash M, Mulder L, Ashwood P. The potential role of probiotics in the management of childhood autism spectrum disorders. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011; 2011:161358. PMID: 22114588.
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    65. Heuer L, Braunschweig D, Ashwood P, Van de Water J, Campbell DB. Association of a MET genetic variant with autism-associated maternal autoantibodies to fetal brain proteins and cytokine expression. Transl Psychiatry. 2011 Oct 18; 1:e48. PMID: 22833194.
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    66. Onore C, Careaga M, Ashwood P. The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of autism. Brain Behav Immun. 2012 Mar; 26(3):383-92. PMID: 21906670.
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    67. Goines PE, Croen LA, Braunschweig D, Yoshida CK, Grether J, Hansen R, Kharrazi M, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Increased midgestational IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-5 in women bearing a child with autism: A case-control study. Mol Autism. 2011 Aug 02; 2:13. PMID: 21810230.
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    68. Ashwood P, Corbett BA, Kantor A, Schulman H, Van de Water J, Amaral DG. In search of cellular immunophenotypes in the blood of children with autism. PLoS One. 2011 May 04; 6(5):e19299. PMID: 21573236.
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    69. Bent S, Bertoglio K, Ashwood P, Bostrom A, Hendren RL. A pilot randomized controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2011 May; 41(5):545-54. PMID: 20683766.
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    70. Wills S, Rossi CC, Bennett J, Martinez-Cerdeño V, Ashwood P, Amaral DG, Van de Water J. Further characterization of autoantibodies to GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system produced by a subset of children with autism. Mol Autism. 2011 Apr 26; 2:5. PMID: 21521495.
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    71. Herr CE, Ghosh R, Dostal M, Skokanova V, Ashwood P, Lipsett M, Joad JP, Pinkerton KE, Yap PS, Frost JD, Sram R, Hertz-Picciotto I. Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011 Feb; 22(1 Pt 1):75-84. PMID: 20609135.
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    72. Goines P, Haapanen L, Boyce R, Duncanson P, Braunschweig D, Delwiche L, Hansen R, Hertz-Picciotto I, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Autoantibodies to cerebellum in children with autism associate with behavior. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Mar; 25(3):514-23. PMID: 21134442.
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    73. Ashwood P, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Associations of impaired behaviors with elevated plasma chemokines in autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroimmunol. 2011 Mar; 232(1-2):196-9. PMID: 21095018.
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    74. Ashwood P, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Altered T cell responses in children with autism. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jul; 25(5):840-9. PMID: 20833247.
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    75. Chonchaiya W, Tassone F, Ashwood P, Hessl D, Schneider A, Campos L, Nguyen DV, Hagerman RJ. Autoimmune disease in mothers with the FMR1 premutation is associated with seizures in their children with fragile X syndrome. Hum Genet. 2010 Nov; 128(5):539-48. PMID: 20809278.
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    76. Ashwood P, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Pessah I, Van de Water J. Elevated plasma cytokines in autism spectrum disorders provide evidence of immune dysfunction and are associated with impaired behavioral outcome. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jan; 25(1):40-5. PMID: 20705131.
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    77. Herr CE, Dostal M, Ghosh R, Ashwood P, Lipsett M, Pinkerton KE, Sram R, Hertz-Picciotto I. Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths. Environ Health. 2010 Aug 02; 9:46. PMID: 20678227.
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    78. Careaga M, Van de Water J, Ashwood P. Immune dysfunction in autism: a pathway to treatment. Neurotherapeutics. 2010 Jul; 7(3):283-92. PMID: 20643381.
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    79. Ashwood P, Nguyen DV, Hessl D, Hagerman RJ, Tassone F. Plasma cytokine profiles in Fragile X subjects: is there a role for cytokines in the pathogenesis? Brain Behav Immun. 2010 Aug; 24(6):898-902. PMID: 20102735.
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    80. Stamova B, Green PG, Tian Y, Hertz-Picciotto I, Pessah IN, Hansen R, Yang X, Teng J, Gregg JP, Ashwood P, Van de Water J, Sharp FR. Correlations between gene expression and mercury levels in blood of boys with and without autism. Neurotox Res. 2011 Jan; 19(1):31-48. PMID: 19937285.
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    81. Tian Y, Green PG, Stamova B, Hertz-Picciotto I, Pessah IN, Hansen R, Yang X, Gregg JP, Ashwood P, Jickling G, Van de Water J, Sharp FR. Correlations of gene expression with blood lead levels in children with autism compared to typically developing controls. Neurotox Res. 2011 Jan; 19(1):1-13. PMID: 19921347.
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    82. Onore C, Enstrom A, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Van de Water J, Ashwood P. Decreased cellular IL-23 but not IL-17 production in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Nov 30; 216(1-2):126-9. PMID: 19800697.
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    83. Enstrom AM, Onore CE, Van de Water JA, Ashwood P. Differential monocyte responses to TLR ligands in children with autism spectrum disorders. Brain Behav Immun. 2010 Jan; 24(1):64-71. PMID: 19666104.
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    84. Hendren RL, Bertoglio K, Ashwood P, Sharp F. Mechanistic biomarkers for autism treatment. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Dec; 73(6):950-4. PMID: 19619951.
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    85. Enstrom AM, Van de Water JA, Ashwood P. Autoimmunity in autism. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2009 May; 10(5):463-73. PMID: 19431079.
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    86. Ashwood P, Schauer J, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Preliminary evidence of the in vitro effects of BDE-47 on innate immune responses in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Mar 31; 208(1-2):130-5. PMID: 19211157.
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    87. Enstrom A, Krakowiak P, Onore C, Pessah IN, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen RL, Van de Water JA, Ashwood P. Increased IgG4 levels in children with autism disorder. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Mar; 23(3):389-95. PMID: 19136055.
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    88. Ashwood P, Enstrom A, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen RL, Croen LA, Ozonoff S, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Decreased transforming growth factor beta1 in autism: a potential link between immune dysregulation and impairment in clinical behavioral outcomes. J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Nov 15; 204(1-2):149-53. PMID: 18762342.
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    89. Heuer L, Ashwood P, Schauer J, Goines P, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Croen LA, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Reduced levels of immunoglobulin in children with autism correlates with behavioral symptoms. Autism Res. 2008 Oct; 1(5):275-83. PMID: 19343198.
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    90. Enstrom AM, Lit L, Onore CE, Gregg JP, Hansen RL, Pessah IN, Hertz-Picciotto I, Van de Water JA, Sharp FR, Ashwood P. Altered gene expression and function of peripheral blood natural killer cells in children with autism. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Jan; 23(1):124-33. PMID: 18762240.
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    91. Wills S, Cabanlit M, Bennett J, Ashwood P, Amaral DG, Van de Water J. Detection of autoantibodies to neural cells of the cerebellum in the plasma of subjects with autism spectrum disorders. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Jan; 23(1):64-74. PMID: 18706993.
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    92. Croen LA, Braunschweig D, Haapanen L, Yoshida CK, Fireman B, Grether JK, Kharrazi M, Hansen RL, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Maternal mid-pregnancy autoantibodies to fetal brain protein: the early markers for autism study. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Oct 01; 64(7):583-8. PMID: 18571628.
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    93. Martin LA, Ashwood P, Braunschweig D, Cabanlit M, Van de Water J, Amaral DG. Stereotypies and hyperactivity in rhesus monkeys exposed to IgG from mothers of children with autism. Brain Behav Immun. 2008 Aug; 22(6):806-16. PMID: 18262386.
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    94. Enstrom A, Onore C, Tarver A, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Croen L, Van de Water J, Ashwood P. Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Production of BDNF following Mitogen Stimulation in Early Onset and Regressive Autism. Am J Biochem Biotechnol. 2008; 4(2):121-129. PMID: 27683277.
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    95. Enstrom A, Onore C, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Croen L, Van de Water J, Ashwood P. Detection of IL-17 and IL-23 in Plasma Samples of Children with Autism. Am J Biochem Biotechnol. 2008; 4(2):114-120. PMID: 27688738.
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    96. Braunschweig D, Ashwood P, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Croen LA, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Autism: maternally derived antibodies specific for fetal brain proteins. Neurotoxicology. 2008 Mar; 29(2):226-31. PMID: 18078998.
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    102. Ashwood P, Wills S, Van de Water J. The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research. J Leukoc Biol. 2006 Jul; 80(1):1-15. PMID: 16698940.
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    103. Bu B, Ashwood P, Harvey D, King IB, Water JV, Jin LW. Fatty acid compositions of red blood cell phospholipids in children with autism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Apr; 74(4):215-21. PMID: 16581239.
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    104. Du X, Tang Y, Xu H, Lit L, Walker W, Ashwood P, Gregg JP, Sharp FR. Genomic profiles for human peripheral blood T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells: comparisons to ischemic stroke, migraine, and Tourette syndrome. Genomics. 2006 Jun; 87(6):693-703. PMID: 16546348.
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    105. Ashwood P, Wakefield AJ. Immune activation of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Apr; 173(1-2):126-34. PMID: 16494951.
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    106. Hertz-Picciotto I, Herr CE, Yap PS, Dostál M, Shumway RH, Ashwood P, Lipsett M, Joad JP, Pinkerton KE, Srám RJ. Air pollution and lymphocyte phenotype proportions in cord blood. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Oct; 113(10):1391-8. PMID: 16203253.
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    107. Mao TK, Lian ZX, Selmi C, Ichiki Y, Ashwood P, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Shimoda S, Ishibashi H, Gershwin ME. Altered monocyte responses to defined TLR ligands in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2005 Oct; 42(4):802-8. PMID: 16175622.
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    108. Wakefield AJ, Ashwood P, Limb K, Anthony A. The significance of ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in children with autistic spectrum disorder. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 08; 17(8):827-36. PMID: 16003132.
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    109. Puleston J, Cooper M, Murch S, Bid K, Makh S, Ashwood P, Bingham AH, Green H, Moss P, Dhillon A, Morris R, Strobel S, Gelinas R, Pounder RE, Platt A. A distinct subset of chemokines dominates the mucosal chemokine response in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jan 15; 21(2):109-20. PMID: 15679760.
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    110. Thomson M, Fritscher-Ravens A, Hall S, Afzal N, Ashwood P, Swain CP. Endoluminal gastroplication in children with significant gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut. 2004 Dec; 53(12):1745-50. PMID: 15542508.
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    111. Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Is autism an autoimmune disease? Autoimmun Rev. 2004 Nov; 3(7-8):557-62. PMID: 15546805.
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    112. Ashwood P, Anthony A, Torrente F, Wakefield AJ. Spontaneous mucosal lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms: mucosal immune activation and reduced counter regulatory interleukin-10. J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov; 24(6):664-73. PMID: 15622451.
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    113. Ashwood P, Van de Water J. A review of autism and the immune response. Clin Dev Immunol. 2004 Jun; 11(2):165-74. PMID: 15330453.
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    114. Torrente F, Anthony A, Heuschkel RB, Thomson MA, Ashwood P, Murch SH. Focal-enhanced gastritis in regressive autism with features distinct from Crohn's and Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr; 99(4):598-605. PMID: 15089888.
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    115. Pérez-Machado MA, Ashwood P, Torrente F, Salvestrini C, Sim R, Thomson MA, Walker-Smith JA, Murch SH. Spontaneous T(H)1 cytokine production by intraepithelial but not circulating T cells in infants with or without food allergies. Allergy. 2004 Mar; 59(3):346-53. PMID: 14982519.
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    116. Ashwood P, Harvey R, Verjee T, Wolstencroft R, Thompson RP, Powell JJ. Functional interactions between mucosal IL-1, IL-ra and TGF-beta 1 in ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Res. 2004 Feb; 53(2):53-9. PMID: 15021969.
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    117. Ashwood P, Harvey R, Verjee T, Wolstencroft R, Thompson RP, Powell JJ. Competition between IL-1, IL-1ra and TGF-beta 1 modulates the response of the ELA4.NOB-1/CTLL bioassay: implications for clinical investigations. Inflamm Res. 2004 Feb; 53(2):60-5. PMID: 15021970.
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    118. Ashwood P, Anthony A, Pellicer AA, Torrente F, Walker-Smith JA, Wakefield AJ. Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology. J Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov; 23(6):504-17. PMID: 15031638.
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    119. Pérez-Machado MA, Ashwood P, Thomson MA, Latcham F, Sim R, Walker-Smith JA, Murch SH. Reduced transforming growth factor-beta1-producing T cells in the duodenal mucosa of children with food allergy. Eur J Immunol. 2003 Aug; 33(8):2307-15. PMID: 12884306.
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    120. Evans SM, Ashwood P, Warley A, Berisha F, Thompson RP, Powell JJ. The role of dietary microparticles and calcium in apoptosis and interleukin-1beta release of intestinal macrophages. Gastroenterology. 2002 Nov; 123(5):1543-53. PMID: 12404229.
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    121. Ellis RD, Ashwood P, Powell JJ, Taylor PD, Poulsom R, Thompson RP, Punchard NA. Selective binding of nucleotide probes by eosinophilic cationic protein during in situ hybridisation. Histochem J. 2002 Mar-Apr; 34(3-4):153-60. PMID: 12495221.
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    123. Powell JJ, Harvey RS, Ashwood P, Wolstencroft R, Gershwin ME, Thompson RP. Immune potentiation of ultrafine dietary particles in normal subjects and patients with inflammatory bowel disease. J Autoimmun. 2000 Feb; 14(1):99-105. PMID: 10648120.
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    124. Alison MR, Chinery R, Poulsom R, Ashwood P, Longcroft JM, Wright NA. Experimental ulceration leads to sequential expression of spasmolytic polypeptide, intestinal trefoil factor, epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha mRNAs in rat stomach. J Pathol. 1995 Apr; 175(4):405-14. PMID: 7790995.
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